Topic: The Pharaoh of the Red Sea 1446 BC

copyright 2013 ~Barbara Grover

Tuthmose II was born 1476 BC. (See notes in thesis)

He and his wife Hatshepsut were the children of Tuthmose I. 

Hatshepsut was the half-sister of Tuthmose II who was the Pharaoh of the Red Sea in 1446 BC.

He would be 30 years old in 1446 BC.

On April 15, 1446 BC, in the morning, God created problems with the Egyptian’s chariot wheels, so that they drove them with difficulty.

      (The Hebrews crossed the Red Sea at night. At dawn, the Red Sea closed its waters and the Egyptians were drowned. Every Hebrew was saved. Every Egyptian died.)

      The Pharaoh took 600 choice chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt with captains over every one of them. Then the Lord told Moses to stretch out his hand over the sea so the waters would come back upon the Egyptians, on their chariots and on their horsemen. Moses did so and when morning appeared, the sea returned to its full depth, while the Egyptians were fleeing into it. The waters covered the chariots, the horsemen, and all the army of Pharaoh. Not so much as one of them remained. [Exo 14: 24-28]

      All this took place after battling spiritually with the Pharaoh of Egypt. God, in speaking through Moses and Aaron, kept telling this king “Let my people go.”

      What are the events surrounding this miraculous time in history when God made known his presence in the affairs of men?

  • (According to Wikipedia) He had scarcely reached the age of thirty when he fell a victim to a disease of which the process of embalming could not remove the traces. The skin is scabrous in patches, and covered with scars, while the upper part of the skull is bald; the body is thin and somewhat shrunken and appears to have lacked vigor and muscular power. (From the plagues?)
  • The severity of the disease is a testament to the hardness of his heart. He was not a victim of the disease, but rather, according to these dates, died at the same time as the crossing of the Red Sea. Wikipedia says he was born 1476 BC and died at the age of thirty which would be the year 1446 BC. The Bible, in tracing Biblical genealogies, says Moses crossed the Red Sea in 1446 BC. The dates are exact.
  • Note! since this documentation, the information for the birth of Tuthmose II has been changed online without explanation. Given the antagonistic culture between Egypt and Jewish history, one cannot help but question whether or not this date would be something Egyptian authorities would not want to expose.

      The name “Moses” means “drawn from the waters” while “Tuthmose” means “born of Thoth”, composed of the name of the Egyptian god THOTH combined with “mesu” meaning “be born”. Being born is also a reference to being drawn from the waters of the mother’s womb.

      I conclude the Pharaoh died at the Red Sea in his battle against God.

  • Psalm 136:15 Overthrew Pharaoh AND his army in the Red Sea, For His mercy endures forever;

      Since the body was mummified, it apparently was not washed away with the sea, although there is plenty of evidence of the location where the Hebrews crossed with pictures of the chariot wheels at the bottom of the sea covered in coral as well as loose horses’ hooves. The four-spoke wheels match this time in history (six vs eight-spoke wheels). Also excavated from the bottom of the sea were human bones, also matching the 18th dynasty (1400s).

      Ironically, Thutmoses II would be “drawn from the water” after being drowned in the Red Sea.

There are 40 years from Moses birth to his exile (40 yrs in the Pharaoh’s house)
There are 40 years from Moses exile to the Exodus (crossing the Red Sea)
There are 40 years of wandering in the wilderness to Moses death

See BC Timeline 1451 BC – 1580 BC
See BC Timeline 1581 BC – 1700 BC

Because of the documentation in the Bible we know about the Hebrews after they left Egypt, but what happened in Egypt after the Hebrews were gone, the army wiped out, the livestock and land demolished, the people devoid of gold and silver (having given it to the Hebrews), and the Pharaoh killed?

                Clay tablets dubbed the Tel-Amarna Letters were found with hieroglyphics written by a pharaoh’s Queen, carbon dating exactly to this period in history with the following message sent to a Hittite king (who, by the way, was the enemy of the Egyptians):

                She wrote a letter to the Hittite king Suppiluliumas: `My husband is dead and I have no son. People say that you have many sons. If you send me one of your sons he will become my husband for it is repugnant to me to take one of my servants to husband.’  (Why would she have to marry one of her servants? Were there no noble men?)

                Other versions add ‘I am afraid.’

                Clay tablets further reveal the reaction to this letter which has been recorded by the son of the Hittite king Suppliluliumas. It is a letter of unbelief and suspicion:

                “…When the people of Misra [Egypt] learned of the destruction of Amqa, they were afraid, for to make matters worse their master, Bibhuria (nickname?) had just died and the widowed queen of Egypt sent an ambassador to my father and wrote to him in these terms: 

                My husband is dead (died in the Red Sea?) and I have no son (the firstborn?) People say that you have many sons. If you send me one of your sons he will become my husband for it is repugnant to me to take one of my servants to husband.’

                When my father learned this, he called together the council of the great: `Since the most ancient times such a thing has never happened before.’  He decided to send Hattu-Zittish, the chamberlain, `Go, bring me information worthy of belief; they may try to deceive me; and as to the possibility that they may have a prince, bring me back information worthy of my belief.’  While Hattu-Zittish was absent on the soil of Egypt, my father vanquished the city of Karchemish…  The ambassador of Egypt, the lord Hanis, came to him. Because my father had instructed Hattu-Zittish when he went to the country of Egypt as follows: ` Perhaps they have a prince, they may be trying to deceive me and do not really want one of my sons to reign over them.’;

                In summary, because the Egyptians and Hittites were such enemies, the Hittite King could not allow himself to believe this report and her invitation was thus declined. He said “Since the most ancient times such a thing has never happened before!” (The story of the crossing of the Red Sea?)

                The son of the Hittite king goes on to say: “the Egyptian queen answered my father in a letter in these words; ‘Why do you say `they are trying to deceive me?’ If I had a son, should I write to a foreign country in a manner humiliating to me and to my country? You do not believe me and you even say so to me! He who was my husband is dead and I have no son. Should I then perhaps take one of my servants and make of him my husband? I have written no other country, I have written to you…”

Take note of the following:

1) This Egyptian Queen has no husband and no son. Note the plagues of Egypt in the Bible and the fact that God took the firstborn males.

2) She is writing to the Hittite King. The Hittites were the enemies of Egypt.

3) She is repulsed at the prospect of having to marry a servant, since there is no longer existing priests or generals.

4) She is afraid. Egypt is vulnerable without an army and without a king. She could not write to any other country and she is taking a huge risk writing to the Hittites.

5) The carbon dating matches this exact time line.

6) The type of chariot wheels found at the bottom of the sea show that the priests, along with the military men, were drowned. They would have been better marriageable material:

“The priests and military men held the highest position in the country after the family of the king, and from them were chosen his ministers and confidential advisers, `the wise counsellors of Pharaoh,’ and all the principal officers of state.” (From “The Ancient Egyptians- Their Life and Customs” by Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson, 1854, vol.1, p.316.)

What did Queen Hatshepsut do to ensure the safety of her country? She became pharaoh!

Bryant G. Wood, ABR Director of Research, is principal archaeologist and director of ABR’s excavation at Khirbet el-Maqatir. He has a MS in Nuclear Engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, a MA in Biblical History from the University of Michigan, and a PhD in Syro-Palestinian Archaeology from the University of Toronto.  The following is taken from his writings:

“The image and name of Hatshepsut, aunt, step-mother and co-regent with Tuthmosis III, was systematically removed from monuments throughout Egypt…Hatshepsut is the most likely candidate for the princess who adopted Moses.” Furthermore; he states the Exodus took place in 1446 BC. This is supported by evidence from Jericho, Ai and Hazor showing that all three sites were burned by fire at the end of the 15th century BC, the time frame for the Conquest based on a 1446 BC Exodus. At Jericho, not only is there evidence for destruction by fire, but also that the destruction took place just after the harvest, the city walls fell, the siege of the city was short, and the city was not plundered, as the Bible records (Wood 1987, 1990, 1999c, 2003: 262–64; Ashley and Aust 2003). Our excavations at Khirbet el-Maqatir have demonstrated that it meets all of the Biblical requirements to be identified as Joshua’s Ai, including destruction by fire (Wood 1999a, 1999b, 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, 2001, 2003: 264–68, 2008c; Briggs 2005). At Hazor, the burning of Stratum XV/2 and the destruction of temples give evidence of the Israelite conquest of the city (Janeway 2003: 95; Wood 2003: 268–69).

With the latest technology in DNA – even more secrets are revealed!!!

Tuthmoses III succeeded Queen Hatshepsut to the throne. Until the present, he had been considered by historians to be the son of Tuthmose II and Hatshepsut. However: According to a recent DNA study, Thutmose III was not the son of Thutmose II and was not paternally descended from earlier 18th dynasty (1550-1479 BC)

The timing of “Tutmoses III” creates confusion among archeologists:  

“The archaeologists Edouard Naville and Kurt Sethe went head-to-head on the order of rule between the three Tuthmoses and Hatshepsut. Since it is generally assumed that if one ruler’s name is replaced with another, the second ruler is in power at the time, a confusing problem exists. Theoretical timelines indicate that the succession followed this sequence:

1. Tuthmose I
2. Tuthmose III
3. Tuthmose III and Hatshepsut, together
4. Tuthmose III alone
5. Tuthmose I and Tuthmose II
6. Tuthmose II alone
7. Hatshepsut and Tuthmose III
8. Tuthmose III alone

Could this confusion be cleared up with two different Tuthmoses IIIs? The first being the first born of Tuthmose II and Hatshepsut, the second, a “replacement” to cover up the vulnerability of Egypt?

  1. Tuthmose I: Father of Tuthmose II with wife Moutnofrit and Father of Hatshepsut with wife Aahmes. Grandfather of Tuthmose III.
  2. Tuthmose II: Son of Tuthmose I, half brother and husband of Hatshepsut. Father of Tuthmose III, the firstborn and only son. The Pharaoh of the Red Sea.
  3. Hatshepsut: Daughter of Tuthmose I with wife Moutnofrit. Wife and half sister of Tuthmose II. Writer of the Tel Armada letters. She became Pharaoh of Egypt.
  4. Tuthmose III (a): The biological and firstborn son of Tuthmose II and Hatshepsut and grandson of Tuthmose I.
  5. Tuthmose III (b): The Hittite replacement for the biological Egyptian Tuthmose III.

If so, consider the following ancient document dated during the reign of Tuthmose’s III’s reign:

“Egypt: The Palace of Pharaoh Tuthmose III. ‘Circles of fire are said to have hovered over the palace while fishes, winged creatures, and other objects rained down from the sky.’”

This strange event has been ascribed to UFOs and of course, dismissed as unexplainable by history. But what if the event documented is part of the plagues of Egypt? Perhaps part of the plague? Or perhaps when God began to guide them through the wilderness?

Who is Tuthmose III?

Consider the following sequence:

Tuthmose I, the father of Tuthmose II and Hatshepsut. He ruled 13 years? (1506/1526-1493/1513) “Thutmose I organized great building projects during his reign, including many temples and tombs. (With Hebrew slaves?)

Tuthmose III 1493?-1446, (Note Exodus 11:4 “Every firstborn son in Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh, who sits on the throne, (47 yrs old?) to the firstborn son of the slave girl, who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle as well”

“This sequence seems as illogical as it is complicated”

Was the “replacement Tuthmose III” a Hittite? Why is it that around 1430 BC Hatshepsut’s image was erased from all Egyptian monuments by her (so-called) son?

Why did Tuthmose III dig up and rebury the sarcophagus of Thutmose I and rebury it in Hatshepsut’s tomb?

Why did Hatshepsut decide to commission an entirely new sarcophagus for herself while she donated the existing finished sarcophagus (of hers) to her father, Thutmose I? (Was he also a first born son of his father? Did he also unexpectedly die in 1446?)

Why is it, when he erected four more flagpoles and two obelisks, that one of them, which now has fallen, was not inscribed until Thutmose III inscribed it about 50 years later?

Why is the latter Tuthmose III renown for his military accomplishments? Did he take advantage of Hittite connections and/or a Hittite army?

Why is it by the 1200s Ramesses married the Hittite’s King Hattusili’s daughter, known by the Egyptian name of Maathorneferure. Years later he married another Hittite princess. His Consort(s) were Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari, and Maathorneferure.

And what of the timeline of the Hebrews? The crossing of the Red Sea took place on April 15, 1446 BC. Note on my timeline exactly 480 years later, in 966 BC Solomon began to build the temple of God! “In the 480th year after the children of Israel had come out of Egypt, in the 4th year of his reign, King Solomon began to build the Temple of God.” [1 Kin 6:1]

Is there any question about this Biblical timeline? No. It fits together like a woven tapestry. If one counts the number of years of wandering, the times of the judges, and the times that the Hebrews were given to serve other kings, the years are absolutely accurate and consistent.

See: Timeline 1446 BC

In 959 BC the temple is finished. The house of the Lord is finished. It took King Solomon 7 years to finish it. Then he started building his own palace. [1 Kin 6:2, 37-38]

The rest is …well, history.

See Ron Wyatt’s website concerning Chariot Wheels found at the bottom of the sea which date to this dynasty. (I do not agree with his conclusions about the reigning pharaohs at that time.)

From Wikipedia: Of all of Wyatt’s claimed discoveries, those relating to the Exodus route have the most substantial evidence. In 2003 the Swedish molecular biologist, Lennart Moller, published the book, The Exodus Case, examining several of Wyatt’s claims, mainly on the Exodus route. The book includes photographs of bones of men and horses recovered from the waters of the Gulf of Aqaba near Nuweiba, Egypt. The book also includes photos of several objects on the seafloor claimed to be chariot wheels, one of which appears to be plated in gold.


  • 2000 BC: Although the equipment used to date radioactive materials has become more sophisticated, basic problems originally discovered by Willard Libby, inventor of the C14 dating method, still pertain. Radiocarbon (C14) dating, calibrated using known dates of Egyptian artifacts, has proved accurate back to only about 2000 BC, according to the discoverer (Libby 1965:ix; for an application to Mesopotamia, see Mallowan 1968:7-8). This has created problems for radio carbon dating older than 4000 BP (Before Present). Dates earlier than that cannot be calibrated since there is no known historical material older than 5000 BP. Dr. Libby himself said:
  • The first shock Dr. Arnold and I had was that our advisors informed us that history extended back only 5000 years. We had initially thought that we would be able to get samples along the curve back to 30,000 years, put the points in, and then our work would be finished . . . We learned rather abruptly that these numbers, these ancient ages are not known; in fact, it is about the time of the first dynasty in Egypt that the last [earliest] historical date of any real certainty has been established (1958:531).

CIRCLES OF FIRE: Ancient Document

  • “In the year 22, of the 3rd month of winter, sixth hour of the day… the scribes of the House of Life found it was a circle of fire that was coming in the sky…. It had no head, the breath of its mouth had a foul odor. Its body one rod long and one rod wide. It had no voice. Their hearts became confused through it; then they laid themselves on their bellies….They went to the Pharaoh… to report it. His Majesty ordered …. [an examination of] all which is written in the papyrus rolls of the House of Life. His Majesty was meditating upon what happened. Now after some days had passed, these things became more numerous in the sky than ever. They shone more in the sky than the brightness of the sun, and extended to the limits of the four supports of the heavens…. Powerful was the position of the fire circles. The army of the Pharaoh looked on with him in their midst. It was after supper. Thereupon, these fire circles ascended higher in the sky towards the south… The Pharaoh caused incense to be brought to make peace on the hearth…”


  • The Hatshepsut problem was a major issue in late 19th century and early 20th century Egyptology, centering on confusion and disagreement on the order of succession of early 18th dynasty pharaohs. The dilemma takes its name from confusion over the chronology of the rule of Queen Hatshepsut and Thutmose I, II, and III. In its day, the problem was controversial enough to cause academic feuds between leading Egyptologists and created perceptions about the early Thutmosid family that persisted well into the 20th century, the influence of which still can be found in more recent works.


* The documentation of Hittite kings is fragmentary with many speculations. Even scholars refute each other.


  • Why was Tuthmose II (Hatshepsut’s husband) buried in Hatshepsut’s coffin? (And she had another built for herself?) Why was Tuthmose II removed from his burial chamber (by Tuthmose III?) and put in with Hatshepsut?
  • Why were the obelisks not finished?
  • Why did Tuthmose III finish the obelisks?
  • Why was her image erased by Tuthmose III?
  • Thutmose II: Alfred Edersheim proposes in his “Old Testament Bible History” that Thutmose II is best qualified to be the pharaoh of Exodus based on the fact that he had a brief, prosperous reign and then a sudden collapse with no son to succeed him. His widow Hatshepsut then became first Regent (for Thutmose III) then Pharaoh in her own right. Edersheim states that Thutmose II is the only Pharaoh’s mummy to display cysts, possible evidence of plagues which spread through the Egyptian and Hittite Empires at that time.
  • Why was Hatshepsut the very first female pharaoh?
  • She reigned as co-regent with Tuthmose III, her son, for three years until, for reasons unknown, she became a pharaoh in her own right. Then, ironically, she reigns again with Tuthmose III (with whom DNA tests show no DNA relationship), leaving speculations (as they post as fact) that Tuthmose III must have been her stepson.


Hatshepsut was the queen of the pharaoh whose husband died in the Red Sea. Her first born (and only son) is dead from the plague. The totality of Egypt’s leaders died with the pharaoh in the Red Sea leaving only servants.

She realizes Egypt is left without an army to defend itself and she is afraid. Egypt has been stripped of her animals (death of the firstborn of beasts), stripped of the firstborn males in every family, stripped of its Prince (first born of the Pharaoh) stripped of her nobles (in the Red Sea), stripped of her gold and silver (given to the Hebrews when they left Egypt), stripped of her army, and stripped of their Pharaoh. Egypt, the powerful nation is naked and has nothing with which to protect herself. Only the Queen remains.

Her only hope is to marry a Hittite. The Hittites are shocked. They’ve never heard of such a thing and were suspicious of her offer. While she did not secure Suppliluliumas’ son for a husband, she did secure one to take as her son. He took the same name as her first-born son Tuthmose III (a).

She took on the role of Pharaoh and wore a beard to rule with her Hittite son who also was called Tuthmose III (b) to cover Egypt’s nakedness.

Ultimately: The fake Hittite Tuthmose III erased all memory of the Exodus during Hatshepsut’s life that shamed Egypt thus erasing most of her memory, and probably writing a fabricated history.


A documentary made into a movie has verified this timeline and gives even more credence to the information supplied.

“Patterns of Evidence” by filmmaker Tim Mahoney

Released at the Pan Pacific Film Festival in July 2014, and in theaters by Thinking Man Film on January 19, 2015.

Revisiting the ruling timeline:

1. Tuthmose I
2. Tuthmose III (a)
3. Tuthmose III (a) and Hatshepsut, together
4. Tuthmose III (a) alone
5. Tuthmose I and Tuthmose II
6. Tuthmose II alone (The Pharaoh of the Red Sea and the Exodus)
7. Hatshepsut and Tuthmose III (b)
8. Tuthmose III (b) alone – He erases all monuments inscribing the story of the Hebrews and rewrites Egypt’s history. He rearranges tombs and sarcophagus’.

  • Professor G. Ernest Wright, Professor of Old Testament and Semitic Studies at Harvard University, gave a lecture at that same dig (Gezer). He made the point that (because of the researches associated with the Hittites and the findings of Professor George Mendenhall concerning what are called the Suzerainty Covenant Treaties between the Hittite kings and their vassals) it had become clear that the records of Moses, when dealing with covenants, must be dated back to the middle of the second millennium BC. That’s about 1500 BC. Also, that those writings should be recognized as a unity. In other words, they go back to one man. That one man could only be Moses.
  • The 1500s are when the Tuthmosis Dynasty ruled.
  • Other bits of information: Two obelisks with hieroglyphics from the reign of the 18th Dynasty Pharaoh Thutmose III were purchased and moved, one erected in from of the Metropolitan Museum in New York City ad one in London. (rev 122120) See notes below from “The New York obelisk and How it Got Here” page 3
  • Taken From “The New York Obelisk and How it Got Here”: The history of the obelisk. Again, in this book, they believed Hatsheput’s step son was Thutmose III.
  • The obelisk for the Pharaoh’s third Jubilee is dated ~1443 BC but it was left abandoned. 1443 BC is the same date the Spies return from Canaan after 40 days of spying out the land Kadesh Barnea after leaving Egypt.

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