Words in italic type have been added for clarity. They are not found in the original Hebrew or Aramaic.
Below: Two charts of Jesus’ Crucifixion week: The first one shows the dates for both the Roman Calendar and the Jewish Calendar. The second one shows the Roman Calendar only. The Roman and Jewish Calendar shows the days divided by evenings and daylight where the darkened areas are noted as evenings showing overlaps and visually explaining what one may see as as potentially a conflicting day.
The Jewish calendar=one day is evening and then day
The Roman calendar=one day is day and then evening
Jesus Handed Over to Pontius Pilate April 25,31 AD
Luke 23:1 Then the whole multitude of them arose and led Him to Pilate.
Luke 23:2 And they began to accuse Him, saying, “We found this fellow perverting (our) the nation, and forbidding to pay taxes to Caesar, saying that He Himself is Christ, a King.”
Luke 23:3 Then Pilate asked Him, saying, “Are You the King of the Jews?”
He answered him and said, “It is as you say.”
- There is no word in Hebrew for “yes”. Instead they would replay with “you say.”
Luke 23:4 So Pilate said to the chief priests and the crowd, “I find no fault in this Man.”
Luke 23:5 But they were the more fierce, saying, “He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee to this place.”
Jesus Faces Herod
Luke 23:6 When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked if the Man were a Galilean (Northern Area).
Luke 23:7 And as soon as he knew that He belonged to Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent Him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem at that time.
- Note: Herod Antipas was in Jerusalem at that time. When they sent Jesus to him it wasn’t as though they had sent Jesus back to Galilee. Instead Herod Antipas was close by in Jerusalem, the area ruled by Herod Antipas’ brother, Herod Archelaus who was known for his cruelty. Both were sons of Herod the Great who had all the boys two and under killed in Bethlehem during the time of Jesus’ birth.
Luke 23:8 Now when Herod (Antipas) saw Jesus, he was exceedingly glad; for he had desired for a long time to see Him, because he had heard many things about Him, and he hoped to see some miracle done by Him.
- Herod believed he could persuade the Creator of the Universe to perform for him.
Luke 23:9 Then he questioned Him with many words, but He answered him nothing.
Luke 23:10 And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused Him.
Luke 23:11 Then Herod, with his men (troops) of war, treated Him with contempt and mocked Him, arrayed Him in a gorgeous robe, and sent Him back to Pilate.
- Proverbs 6:16 These six things the Lord hates,
Yes, seven are an abomination to Him:
17 A proud look (Lit haughty eyes),
A lying tongue,
Hands that shed innocent blood,
18 A heart that devises wicked plans,
Feet that are swift in running to evil,
19 A false witness who speaks lies,
And one who sows discord among brethren.
- Jesus was mocked twice in regal robes; a Gentile robe and a Jewish robe:
- Pilate’s Gentile Roman legion (Mark 15:16)
- Herod’s Jewish robe (Luke 23:11).
- When Jesus returns to earth to set up His kingdom He will be ruler over both the Jews and the Gentiles.
Luke 23:12 That very day Pilate (a gentile) and Herod (representing the Jews) became friends with each other, for previously they had been at enmity (conflict) with each other.
- Pilate was a Roman. Herod was an Edomite. The presence of Jesus made the two enemies – friends.
Taking the Place of Barabbas
Luke 23:13 Then Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests, the rulers, and the people,
Luke 23:14 said to them, “You have brought this Man to me, as one who misleads the people. And indeed, having examined Him in your presence, I have found no fault in this Man concerning those things of which you accuse Him;
Luke 23:15 no, neither did Herod, for I sent you back to him (he sent Him back to us); and indeed nothing deserving of death has been done by Him.
Luke 23:16 I will therefore chastise Him and release Him”
Luke 23:17 (for it was necessary for him to release one to them at the feast).
Luke 23:18 And they all cried out at once, saying, “Away with this Man, and release to us Barabbas”—
- Jesus called Himself “The Son of the Father (God)”. The name Barabbas means “son of the father. Both were named “Jesus”.
- Matthew 10:32 “Therefore whoever confesses Me before men, him I will also confess before My Father who is in heaven.
- Matthew 11:27 All things have been delivered to Me by My Father, and no one knows the Son except the Father. Nor does anyone know the Father except the Son, and the one to whom the Son wills to reveal Him.
- The name “Barabbas”: “Bar” means “son” and “abba” means father.
- When Pilot asked who they wanted to release, He could have looked at Jesus the Christ and said “Jesus, Son of THE Father?” then looked at Barabbas and said “or Jesus, son of the father?” As Barabbas’ name was also Jesus.
- The Jews have a habit of choosing the wrong Messiah. They chose Barabbas “son of the father”. When the Antichrist comes, they will choose him instead of Jesus.
- John 5:43 I have come in My Father’s name, and you do not receive Me; if another comes in his own name, him you will receive.
- Even the Herodians chose the wrong Messiah. They were called Herodians because they believed Herod was the prophesied Messiah, calculating the number of years from Cyrus and knew the Messiah was about to arrive. Herod had added to the temple creating a more magnificent building worthy of man’s praise.
- Even today, the Jews tend to tie the coming of the Messiah with the building of the temple. They believe the one to come is the one who will restore the temple will be their messiah.
- “In mainstream Orthodox Judaism the rebuilding of the Temple is generally left to the coming of the Jewish Messiah” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Temple
Luke 23:19 who (Barabbas) had been thrown into prison for a certain rebellion made in the city, and for murder.
Luke 23:20 Pilate, therefore, wishing to release Jesus, again called out to them.
Luke 23:21 But they shouted, saying, “Crucify Him, crucify Him!”
Luke 23:22 Then he said to them the third time, “Why, what evil has He done? I have found no reason for death in Him. I will therefore chastise Him and let Him go.”
Luke 23:23 But they were insistent, demanding with loud voices that He be crucified. And the voices of these men and of the chief priests prevailed.
Luke 23:24 So Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they requested.
Luke 23:25 And he released to them the one they requested, who for rebellion and murder had been thrown into prison; but he delivered Jesus to their will.
The King on a Cross
Luke 23:26 Now as they led Him away, they laid hold of a certain man, Simon a Cyrenian, who was coming from the country, and on him they laid the cross that he might bear it after Jesus.
- Prophetic verse: Luke 9:23 Then He said to them all, “If anyone desires to come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow Me.
Luke 23:27 And a great multitude of the people followed Him, and women who also mourned and lamented Him.
Luke 23:28 But Jesus, turning to them, said, “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for Me, but weep for yourselves and for your children.
Luke 23:29 For indeed the days are coming in which they will say, ‘Blessed are the barren, wombs that never bore, and breasts which never nursed!’
- Mark 15:17 But woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing babies in those days!
Luke 23:30 Then they will begin ‘to say to the mountains, “Fall on us!” and to the hills, “Cover us!” ’
- Revelation 6:16 and said to the mountains and rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of Him who sits on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb! (when Jesus returns to set up His kingdom on earth)
Luke 23:31 For if they do these things in the green wood, what will be done in the dry?”
- A tree with green wood is full of life.
- The season of green wood is bad when that which gives water to the tree is cut off.
- If that is what happens when there is water, what will happen when there is no water?
- Jesus is the water who gives life, He is the living water (John 7:38). He is also the rain which comes down from heaven (Hosea 6:3).
- During the tribulation there will be no rain. (Revelation 11:6)
Luke 23:32 There were also two others, criminals, led with Him to be put to death.
Luke 23:33 And when they had come to the place called Calvary, there they crucified Him, and the criminals, one on the right hand and the other on the left.
Luke 23:34 Then Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they do.”
- Jesus asked for forgiveness for the soldiers, but of Judas He said it would be better if Judas had never been born. Matthew 26:24
And they divided His garments and cast lots.
- They gambled for His clothes.
Luke 23:35 And the people stood looking on. But even the rulers with them sneered, saying, “He saved others; let Him save Himself if He is the Christ (the Jewish Messiah), the chosen of God (theos).”
Luke 23:36 The soldiers also mocked Him, coming and offering Him sour wine,
Luke 23:37 and saying, “If You are the King of the Jews, save Yourself.”
- Note: The Rulers of the Jews, and the soldiers mocked Him. These are the “Bulls of Bashan” of Psalm 22, verses 7-8 and 12-13.
- All those who see Me ridicule Me;
They shoot out the lip, they shake the head, saying,
“He trusted in the Lord, let Him rescue Him;
Let Him deliver Him, since He delights in Him!”
- Many bulls have surrounded Me;
Strong bulls of Bashan have encircled Me.
- They gape at Me with their mouths,
Like a raging and roaring lion.
- The word ‘derided’ is ‘ekmukterizo’. Thayer Definition: to turn up the nose or sneer at, to mock, deride.
- Origin: from a derivative of the base of G3455 (meaning snout, as that whence lowing proceeds)
- Thayer Definition: to low, bellow, properly of horned cattle, to roar, of a lion.
- Origin: “from a presumed derivative of muzo (to “moo”)” They derided Jesus as if cows were mooing at Him.
- Interestingly enough it comes from ‘mukaomai’ – “to low, bellow, properly of horned cattle, to roar, of a lion”. We have two references to horned cattle (bulls) and lions when looking back at this prophetic Psalm that is talking about Jesus. The rulers derided Him like strong bulls of Bashan and were ravening and roaring lions. And when I looked at this Greek word ‘ekmukterizo’ in the Septuagint when translated from the Hebrew, it is the same word used in Psalm 22:7 as ‘scorn’ (turn up the nose, snout, ridicule, deride)
- So, how is this relevant for Christians today? Jesus said we would suffer persecution because of Him and Paul adds that if we will live godly in Him, this is bound to happen. With that said….I would rather be one of the sheep surrounded by the bulls and lions, than be one of the roaring lions and bulls ‘mooing’ (deriding and mocking) the sheep of the Shepherd!
- Personal application: When you witness someone being derided you can tell their persecutors to stop “mooing” at the their victim. They look ridiculous.
Luke 23:38 And an inscription also was written over Him in letters of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew:
THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS
Luke 23:39 Then one of the criminals who were hanged (on the cross) blasphemed Him, saying, “If You are the Christ, save Yourself and us.” (Are You not the Christ? Save)
- The criminals mocked Him. He said “save Yourself AND us.” He wanted to be saved, but it was the other criminal who relented and was saved when Jesus said “Assuredly, I say to you, today you will be with Me in Paradise.”
- Jesus’ Hebrew name (Yeshua) means “salvation”, and He saves.
Luke 23:40 But the other, answering, rebuked him, saying, “Do you not even fear God (theos), seeing you are under the same condemnation?
Luke 23:41 And we indeed justly, for we receive the due reward of our deeds; but this Man has done nothing wrong.”
Luke 23:42 Then he said to Jesus, “Lord (kyrios), remember me when You come into Your kingdom.” (“Jesus, remember me)
- Everyone with a broken heart says “Jesus, remember me”.)
Luke 23:43 And Jesus said to him, “Assuredly, I say to you, today you will be with Me in Paradise.”
- Paradise: parádeisos, a park, i.e. (specially), an Eden (place of future happiness, “paradise”):—paradise. The Garden of Eden gan-Eden.
Jesus Dies on the Cross
Luke 23:44 Now it was about the sixth hour (noon), and there was darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour (3pm).
Luke 23:45 Then the sun was (obscured) darkened, and the veil of the temple was torn in two (the middle).
Luke 23:46 And when Jesus had cried out with a loud voice, He said, “Father, ‘into Your hands I commit My spirit.’ ” Having said this, He breathed His last.
Luke 23:47 So when the centurion saw what had happened, he glorified God, saying, “Certainly this was a righteous Man!”
Luke 23:48 And the whole crowd who came together to that sight, seeing what had been done, beat their breasts and returned.
Luke 23:49 But all His acquaintances, and the women who followed Him from Galilee, stood at a distance, watching these things.
Jesus Buried in Joseph’s Tomb
Luke 23:50 Now behold, there was a man named Joseph, a council member, a good and just man.
Luke 23:51 He had not consented to their decision and deed. He was from Arimathea, a city of the Jews, who himself was also waiting for the kingdom of God.
- Joseph was a metal magnate with mines in Cornwell, England. After Jesus rose from the dead the gospel was spread through England.
Luke 23:52 This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus.
Luke 23:53 Then he took it down, wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a tomb that was hewn out of the rock, where no one had ever lain before.
Luke 23:54 That day was the Preparation, and the Sabbath drew near.
- April 25,31 AD; the following day was Passover Celebrated, a Holy Convocation aka a High Sabbath. It was against Jewish law to leave a body on the cross during Passover which would begin as soon as the sun set according to the Jewish calendar. Jesus had to be taken down before the sun had set.
Luke 23:55 And the women who had come with Him from Galilee followed after, and they observed the tomb and how His body was laid.
Luke 23:56 Then they returned and prepared spices and fragrant oils. And they rested on the Sabbath according to the commandment.
- They celebrated the Passover. Jesus was God’s Passover lamb slain for the sins of the world.