Timeline 311 BC -500 BC Queen Esther – Death of Alexander the Great – The Four Successors

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400 BC: Centered within a loose collection of city-states (often at war with one another), ancient Greek culture reached its pinnacle during the fourth century BC – an era described as its “Golden Age.” Art, theater, music, poetry, philosophy, and political experiments such as democracy flourished. Greek influence stretched along the northern rim of the Mediterranean from the shores of Asia Minor to the Italian peninsula.
In Athens, society was male-dominated – only men could be citizens and only upper-class males enjoyed a formal education. Women had few political rights and were expected to remain in the home and bear children. Fully one quarter of the population was made up of slaves, usually prisoners captured during the many clashes that extended Greek influence overseas. These slaves provided much of the manpower that fueled the burgeoning economy, working in shipyards, quarries, mines, and as domestic servants.
Most homes were modest, windowless and wrapped around a courtyard. Furniture was rare. People spent the majority of the day out of doors enjoying the mild Mediterranean climate.

The Greek diet was also modest, based largely on wine and bread. A typical day would start with bread dipped in wine, the same for lunch and a dinner of wine, fruits, vegetables and fish. Consumption of meat was reserved for special occasions such as religious holidays.

Xenophon was a pupil of Socrates. He describes the manner in which the ideal Greek aristocrat would pass the hours of a typical morning. Xenophon uses a literary device in which the story is supposed to be told by Socrates who is speaking with a friend by the name of Ischomachus. Socrates has asked his friend to describe how he spends his day. Ischomachus responds:

“Why, then, Socrates, my habit is to rise from bed betimes, when I may still expect to find at home this, that, or the other friend whom I may wish to see. Then, if anything has to be done in town, I set off to transact the business and make that my walk; or if anything has to be done in town, I set off to transact the business and make that my walk; or if there is no business to transact in town, my serving boy leades on my horse to the farm. I follow, and so make the country road my walk, which suits my purpose quite as well or better, Socrates, perhaps, than pacing up and down the colonnade [in the city]. (Socrates lived c. 470 – 399 BC)

YearEvents and Comments
PriorTimeline 281 BC – 310 BC
311 BC311-302 BC: Over the course of nine years, while Antigonus was occupied in the west, Seleucus brought the whole eastern part of Alexander’s empire as far as the Jaxartes and Indus Rivers under his authority.

311 BC: Raids into Babylonia by Antigonus and his son Demitrius did not check Selecus’ progress of bringing the whole eastern empire under his authority, as far as Jaxartes and the Indus rivers.
312 BC

YEAR THREE The third war of the Diadochi. The Third of the four wings on the leopard in Daniel 7:6.
314–311 BC: YEAR THREE The third war of the Diadochi. The Third of the four wings on the leopard in Daniel 7:6. Cassander had young King Alexander IV and his mother Roxane murdered, ending the Argead Dynasty which had ruled Macedon for several centuries. Antigonus now concluded a compromise peace with Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander, he continued the war with Seleucus.

Battle of Gaza: Ptolemy I and Seleucus I come together to triumph over Demetrius.

Oct 1, 312 BC: Ptolemy and Seleucus, the satrap of Babylonia, invade the satrapy of Syria. The resulting Battle of Gaza leads to a triumph for Ptolemy and Seleucus over Antigonus’ son, Demetrius Poliorcetes (“sieger of cities”), who is captured but immediately released. Seleucus ceases his service to Ptolemy and returns to his former province, Babylonia. This event takes place on October 1 and becomes the starting point of the Seleucid era.

The Four “Diadochi” (Successors to Alexander’s Kingdom) are the four heads on the leopard with four wings in Daniel 7:6. The four wings are the four wars of the Diadochi.

Construction of the first aqueduct, the Aqua Appia, and the first major road, the Via Appia, which connected Rome with southern Italy.

The number of rural tribes in Rome is raised to twenty-seven.
313 BC

YEAR TWO The third war of the Diadochi. The Third of the four wings on the leopard in Daniel 7:6.
The first year of the Seleucis Era by Nisan Reckoning
http://www.yahweh.org/publications/sjc/sj12chap.pdf

314–311 BC: YEAR TWO The third war of the Diadochi. The Third of the four wings on the leopard in Daniel 7:6. Cassander had young King Alexander IV and his mother Roxane murdered, ending the Argead Dynasty which had ruled Macedon for several centuries. Antigonus now concluded a compromise peace with Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander, he continued the war with Seleucus.
314 BC

YEAR ONE The third war of the Diadochi. The Third of the four wings on the leopard in Daniel 7:6.

314–311 BC: YEAR ONE The third war of the Diadochi. The Third of the four wings on the leopard in Daniel 7:6. Cassander had young King Alexander IV and his mother Roxane murdered, ending the Argead Dynasty which had ruled Macedon for several centuries. Antigonus now concluded a compromise peace with Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander, he continued the war with Seleucus.


315 BC

The Second War of the Diadochi. YEAR FIVE.

The Second of the four wings on the Leopard of Daniel 7:6
319-315 BC: The Second War of the Diadochi. YEAR FIVE
316 BC

The Second War of the Diadochi. YEAR FOUR. The Second of the four wings on the Leopard of Daniel 7:6
319-315 BC: The Second War of the Diadochi. YEAR FOUR

In the 116th Olympiad (316 B.C.) Demosthenes of Laconia won the stadion race, and the archons at Athens were Democleides, Praxibulus, Nicodorus and Theodorus.

In the first year [Antipater] died and [Polyperchon] took over the government …

“In 316 BC, Antigonus made himself master of the eastern provinces, Seleucus felt himself threatened and fled to Egypt. In the war which followed between Antigonus and the other Macedonian chiefs, Seleucus actively cooperated with Ptolemy and commanded Egyptian squadrons in the Aegean Sea.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucus_I_Nicator
317 BC

The Second War of the Diadochi. YEAR THREE. The Second of the four wings on the Leopard of Daniel 7:6
319-315 BC: The Second War of the Diadochi. YEAR THREE

317 BC: Cassandra had Alexander’s wife, Roxana and son murdered, regaining Macedonia, leaving none of Alexander the Greats’ offspring to inherit his throne, Daniel 11:4 fulfilling the prophecy “not to his prosperity” (Alexander’s wife and son are killed)
318 BC

The Second War of the Diadochi. YEAR TWO. The Second of the four wings on the Leopard of Daniel 7:6
318 BC: Cassander captured Olympias (Alexander’s mother) and had her executed.

318 BC: Cassander persuaded King Philip III (half brother of Alexander) to depose of his regent, Polyperchon.

319-315 BC: The Second War of the Diadochi. YEAR TWO
319 BC

The Second War of the Diadochi. YEAR ONE. The Second of the four wings on the Leopard of Daniel 7:6

Cassandra also had Alexander’s wife, Roxana and son murdered, regaining Macedonia, leaving none of Alexander the Greats’ offspring to inherit his throne, hence fulfilling the prophecy “not to his prosperity” of Daniel 11:4.

Leaving none of Alexander the Greats’ offspring to inherit his throne, hence fulfilling the prophecy “not to his prosperity” of Daniel 11:4.
319 BC: Olympias, Alexander the Greats’ mother, stayed behind, and murdered Philip III (Alexander’s half brother) to keep him from inheriting the throne as a sole ruler.

319 BC: Antigonus and Ptolemy (who were worried about Polyperchon’s power, being the new regent) helped Cassander drive Polyperchon out of Macedon.

319 BC: Phillip III and Alexander IV, the successive rulers, were moved to Macedon by Polyperchon, Antipater’s appointed successor.

319 BC: Polyperchon is Antipater’s appointed successor and is now the new Regent of the Kingdom and the protector of the two princes: Phillip III and Alexander IV.

319 BC: The death of Antipater injected new fighting into the battle for the next king of Macedon after Alexander’s death. To make matters worse, Antipater chose his general, Polyperchon, over his son to succeed him. His son was Cassander, one of Alexander’s generals who was not about to sit idly by and allow Polyperchon take over the regency of Macedonia.

319-315 BC: The Second War of the Diadochi. YEAR ONE. The Polyperchon Predicament.

The Second of the four wings on the leopard in Daniel 7:6.

When Antipater died in 319 BC, he choose a former general; Polyperchon, instead of his son, Cassander, to be his successor. (Perdiccas was now dead having been killed by his own officers.) This infuriated Cassander and triggered the second war of the Diadochi. Antigonus and Ptolemy (who were worried about Polyperchon’s power, being the new regent) helped Cassander drive Polyperchon out of Macedon.
Polyperchon, who had been a supporter of Alexander’s son, Alexander IV instead of Alexander’s half brother, Phillip II, took Alexander the Great’s wife and son; Roxana and her young son Alexander IV, with him when he fled Macedon.
Olympias, Alexander the Greats’ mother, stayed behind, and in 319 BC murdered Philip III to keep him from inheriting the throne as a sole ruler.
Cassander captured Olympias a year later and had her executed. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica 2004 (Roxana article) Cassandra also had Alexander’s wife, Roxana and son murdered, regaining Macedonia, leaving none of Alexander the Greats’ offspring to inherit his throne, hence fulfilling the prophecy “not to his prosperity” of Daniel 11:4.
320 BC

The First War of the Diadochi. Year Three.
The first of the four wings on the Leopard of Daniel 7:6
322-320 BC: The First War of the Diadochi. YEAR THREE

The first of the four wings on the Leopard of Daniel 7:6.


In the 115th Olympiad (320 B.C.) Damasias of Amphipolis won the stadion race, and the archons at Athens were Neaechmus, Apollodorus, Archippus and Demogenes.

In the first year Antipater, who had taken over as king in Macedonia, met the Greeks in battle at Lamia and defeated them. The Romans were defeated in battle by the Samnites. In the second year Antipater crossed over to Asia against Perdiccas, and made the second partition (of the empire) amongst the successors of Alexander, in which Ptolemaeus kept (his portion). In the third year the Romans defeated the Samnites in battle, and recovered their men who had been captured in the first battle.
321 BC

The First War of the Diadochi. Year Two.
The first of the four wings on the Leopard of Daniel 7:6
322-320 BC: The First War of the Diadochi. YEAR TWO

The first of the four wings on the Leopard of Daniel 7:6.

321 BC: The allies of Antipater won, although Craterus was killed.

321 BC: Perdiccas, the appointed regent of Macedonia over Alexander’s kingdom and the two princes, Phillip III (Alexander’s half brother) and Alexander IV (Alexander’s infant son), is assassinated by his own generals. His severe rule led to a rebellion and in fighting among the generals. This, in spite of the fact that he was married to Cleopatra, Alexander the Great’s half sister.

321 BC: Percidius vs Antipater: who will be the next Regent of Alexander’s kingdom and the two princes, Philip III, Alexander’s half brother and Alexander IV, Alexander’s son? Eumenes supported Perdiccas. Antigonus, Ptolemy, and Craterus supported Antipater.

322 BC

The First War of the Diadochi. Year One.
The first of the four wings on the Leopard of Daniel 7:6.
322-320 BC: The First War of the Diadochi. YEAR ONE

The first of the four wings on the Leopard of Daniel 7:6.

It turned out that Perdiccas was a poor choice for regency; his marriage to Alexander the Great’s sister Cleopatra (not the Cleopatra of Julius Ceasar) and his severe rule led to a rebellion and in fighting among the generals: Eumenes supported Perdiccas, while Antigonus, Ptolemy, and Craterus supported Antipater. In 321, battle was joined; the allies of Antipater won, although Craterus was killed. Perdiccas was assassinated by his own officers. On the death (319) of Antipater the struggle was on again. Phillip III and Alexander IV, the successive rulers, were moved to Macedon by Polyperchon, Antipater’s appointed successor.
323 BC

Fulfillment of Daniel 11:4

The goat with 1 horn is broken off. In its place, 4 horns appear.

The 4 horns on the goat, the 4 heads on the leopard of Daniel’s visions. The four wings on the leopard illustrate the 4 wars of the successors.

Ptolemy takes Egypt (king of the south in Daniel). Seleucus takes Asia (king of the north in Daniel). Lyhisimachus takes Thrace (Turkey). Casander takes Greece.
Fulfillment of Daniel 11:4

Ptolemy takes Egypt (king of the south in Daniel). Seleucus takes Asia (king of the north in Daniel). Lyhisimachus takes Thrace (Turkey). Casander takes Greece. The 4 generals are: the 4 horns on the goat, the 4 heads on the leopard of Daniel’s visions. The four wings on the leopard illustrate the 4 wars of the successors to take their kingdoms.

At the acropolis in Susa, an unidentified woman is buried in a bronze sarcophagus, wearing “a mass of finely-wrought and artistic gems and jewels” and two coins, one dating from 350 BC and the other from 332 BC. The tomb will remain unopened for more than 22 centuries, until French archaeologist Jacques de Morgan unearths it on February 10, 1901. (Speculation bg: Sisygambus, the mother of Darious III, After she was captured by Alexander at the Battle of Issus, she became devoted to him, and Alexander referred to her as “mother”. When Alexander died, she turned her face to the wall and refused to eat. She died in 323 BC, in Susa.) The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre
By Musée du Louvre Page 242


The temple of Artemis at Ephesus was a large stone temple constructed around 550 BC.
The temple of Artemis at Ephesus was destroyed on July 21, 356 BC in an act of arson committed by Herostratus. According to the story, his motivation was fame at any cost. The Ephesians, outraged, announced that Herostratus’ name never be recorded. The Greek historian Strabo later noted the name, which is how we know today. The temple was destroyed on the same night that Alexander the Great was born. Alexander, as king, offered to pay to rebuild the temple, but his offer was denied. Later, after Alexander died, the temple was rebuilt in 323 BC.
The new temple was destroyed by the Goths in 262 BC.
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/The_Seven_Wonders_of_the_World/The_Temple_of_Artemis

Dec 25, 323 BC: Philip III Arrhidaeus murdered. Olympias had him executed. His wife, Cyriane, was forced by Olympias to commit suicide.

June 7, 323 BC: Day 10. The death of Alexander the Great. The exact cause of Alexander’s death is unknown. Historians have debated the issue for centuries, attributing it to poison, malaria, typhoid fever or other maladies. What is agreed upon is that the Macedonian king died in early June 323 BC while suffering a high fever that had lasted ten days. His empire was carved up by his generals and soon disintegrated.

June 6, 323 AD: Day 9 He had a high fever that night; another day as well. all the next day and for another day as well.
June 5, 323 AD: Day 8. The next day, though very weak, he managed to sacrifice. He asked the generals to stay in the hall, with the brigadiers and colonels in front of the doors. Now extremely sick, he was carried back from the garden to the Royal Apartments. As the officers entered, he clearly recognized them, but he said not a word to them.
June 4, 323 AD: Day 7. The next day he was carried with difficulty to perform the sacrifices, and continued to give orders just the same to his officers about the voyage.
June 3, 323 AD: Day 6. The next day, he was carried to the house by the diving place, where he sacrificed, and in spite of being very poorly, summoned the senior officers to give them renewed instructions about the voyage.
June 2, 323 AD: Day 5. The following day, he again bathed and sacrificed, and after performing them, he remained in constant fever. But in spite of that he summoned the officers and ordered them to have every­thing quite ready for the journey. After a bath in the evening, he was now very ill.

June 1, 323 AD: Day 4. In the morning he bathed and sacrificed. Nearchus and the other officers were instructed to get things ready for sailing two days later.
May 31, 323 AD: Day 3. The next day, he again bathed and performed the prescribed sacrifices. He then entered his room, lay down and talked to Medius. After ordering the officers to meet him in the morning, he had a little food. Carried back to his room, he lay now in continual fever the whole night.
May 30, 323 BC: Day 2. Each day he (Alexander) was carried on his couch to perform the custom­ary sacrifices, and after their completion he lay down in the men’s apartments until dusk. During this time he gave instructions to his officers about the coming expedition and sea-voyage, for the land forces to be ready to move on the fourth day, and for those sailing with him to be prepared to cast off a day later. He was carried thence on his couch to the river, where he boarded a boat and sailed across to the garden where he rested again after bathing.
May 29, 323 BC: Day 1 On May 29 he attended a dinner given by a close friend. Alexander joined in the heavy drinking during the day-long event. Complaining that he did not feel well, he went to bed. Day 1
The Royal Diaries tell us that he drank and caroused with Medius. Later he rose, had a bath and slept. He then returned to have dinner with Medius and again drank far into the night. Leaving the drinking, he bathed, after which he had a little to eat and went to sleep there. The fever was already on him. (Alexander’s health steadily deteriorated as fever wracked his body. Finally, too weak to leave his bed, the conqueror of the world died ten days after he was stricken.)


May 323 BC: It was May of 323 BC and Alexander the Great was in Baghdad. The thirty-two-year-old King of Macedonia had spent the past thirteen years conquering much of the known world and had created an empire that reached from Macedonia through Greece and the Persian Empire to the fringes of India. He had plans to expand his empire but these dreams would never be realized.
Alexander’s campaign of domination had started when he crossed the Hellespont to conquer the Persian Empire. Victorious after three major battles and the death of the Persian leader Darius III in 330 BC, Alexander continued his march eastward into the area to the west and north of India. He vanquished all who challenged his authority and would have extended his dominion into India and the lands beyond if his army had not balked, forcing him to abandon his plans to continue his march eastward.
Now that he had returned to Baghdad after years of military campaigning, Alexander took the opportunity to rest and to plan his next conquest.


June 11, 323 BC: Afternoon: On the afternoon of June 11, 323 BC, Alexander died in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon. (Bible Bit) He was just one month short of attaining 33 years of age. (356-323 BC) built an empire from Greece to India before dying of natural causes at age 33. ~Babylonian astronomical diaries

324 BC

Alexander the Great marries Statira, the Daughter of Darius III whom he conquered.
324 BC: Ecbatana. Alexander and Hephaestion arrived in the autumn, and it was there, during games and festivals, that Hephaestion fell ill with a fever. Arrian says that after the fever had run for seven days, Alexander had to be summoned from the games to Hephaestion, who was seriously ill. He did not arrive in time; by the time he got there, Hephaestion was dead. Alexander grieves uncontrollably.

324 BC: Alexander married Statira at Opis in 324 BC. Statira was the daughter of Darius whom Alexander conquered. Hephaestion marries her sister Drypetis.

In the 114th Olympiad (324 BC) Micinas of Rhodes won the stadion race, and the archons at Athens were Hegesias, Cephisophon, Philocles and Archippus. In the first year Alexander died, in the 13th year of his reign and the 33rd year of his life. In the second year Ptolemaeus the son of Lagus was sent to govern Egypt.
325 BCEARTHQUAKE: Oct or Nov 325 BC, Greek, Indian and Sri Lankan give accounts of a large earthquake along the Makran coast in the North Arabian Sea generated a destructive tsunami which destroyed part of Alexander the Great’s fleet. A town named Kalyani Kanika, in Sri Lanka, and several other townships in the Eastern Seaboard were inundated or destroyed by tsunami waves in the time of King Kelanitissa.

Also provided in these records is an account of Viharamahadevi, the daughter of King Kelanitissa. Viharamahadevi was set afloat at sea in Kalyani Kanika presumambly to appease the Gods who were angry. However, sea currents, brought her back to shore, landing her in Kirinda.

325 BC: The first known reference to sugar cane appears in writings by Alexander the Great’s admiral Nearchus, who writes of Indian reeds “that produce honey, although there are no bees”.
326 BC326 BC: Fearing the prospects of facing another powerful Indian army and exhausted by years of campaigning, Alexander’s army mutinies at the Hyphasis River (the modern Beas River) and refuses to march further east, thus making this river mark the eastern-most extent of Alexander’s conquests.
327 BC327 BC: The relations between Alexander and Aristotle are embittered by the execution of Aristotle’s nephew, the historian Callisthenes of Olynthus, who is charged with treason. Callisthenes has been accompanying Alexander to write a chronicle of the campaign.
328 BC

Alexander the Great marries the daughter of Oxyartes whom he conquered: Roxana.
328 BC: At Maracanda, Alexander murders Clitus, one of his most trusted commanders, friend and foster-brother, in a drunken quarrel; but his excessive display of remorse leads the army to pass a decree convicting Clitus posthumously of treason.

328 BC: Alexander attacks Oxyartes and the remaining Bactrian barons who are holding out in the hills of Paraetacene (modern Tadzhikistan). The Macedonians seize the crag on which Oxyartes has his stronghold (the Sogdian Rock), and among the captives is his daughter, Roxana. In the reconciliation that follows the battle, Alexander marries Roxana. The rest of Oxyartes’ opponents are either won over or crushed.

In the 113th Olympiad (328 BC) Criton of Macedonia won the stadion race, and the archons at Athens were Euthycritus, Hegemon, Chremes [and Anticles]. Throughout the four years of this Olympiad there occurred the rest of the exploits of Alexander, as he conquered the nations of Asia.
329 BC
UFO’s?
329 BC: Bessus (King Darius III’s betrayer) is captured, flogged, and sent to Ptolemy I (future pharoah of Egypt) in Bactria with the hope of appeasing Alexander. In due course, Bessus is publicly executed at Ecbatana.

329 BC Alexander the Great records two great silver shields, spitting fire around the rims in the sky that dived repeatedly at his army as they were attempting a river crossing. (UFOs?) The action so panicked his elephants, horses, and men they had to abandon the river crossing until the following day.
330 BC
The prophecies of Daniel 8:5, 8:8, and 8:21.
July 330 BC: Alexander (the Goat with one horn in Daniel’s visions) then set off in pursuit of Darius III (the Ram in Daniel’s vision) anew. Darius III had been taken prisoner by Bessus, his Bactrian (from Bactria) satrap, loyal friend, and kinsman. Bessus had his men fatally stab Darius III in July 330 BC near Ahuan Iran and left him dying in a baggage train being pulled by an ox, where he was discovered by one of Alexander’s scouts. Darius’ end was pathetic. Before he died, Darius remarked that he was glad that he would not die alone.

The prophecies of Daniel 8:5, 8:8, and 8:21.
331 BC331 BC: During his first stay in Babylon in 331 BC, Alexander ordered restoration works at the Esagila complex, and the nearby temple tower Etemenanki (some believe this is the ancient “tower of Babel” of Nimrod)

ALEXANDER (GREECE) DEFEATS DARIUS III (PERSIA)
331 BC: Oct 1, Battle of Gaugamela in Turkey, Alexander met Darius III the second time to defeat him. (Babylonian astronomical diaries)

331 BC: The Siege of Syria. Leaving Egypt, Alexander marched eastward into Assyria (now northern Iraq) and confronted Darius III once again, this time at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC. And once again, Darius was forced to leave the field. Alexander chased him as far as Arbela (Arbil, Iraq). While Darius fled over the mountains to Ecbatana (modern Hamedan Iran), Alexander marched to Babylon.

In October (The same month that Cyrus had defeated the Babylonians) Babylon fell to the young Macedonian conqueror. (Bible Bit)

332 BC

Battle of Arbela

Persian King Darius III is murdered trying to escape from Alexander the Great.
332 AD: Creation of two new tribes at Rome, Maecia and Scaptia. Rome signs a treaty with the city of Tarentum.

332-331 BC: Siege of Egypt by Alexander the Great who was welcomed as a liberator in an area “ruled by Persians”.

332 AD: Alexander the Great conquered Phoenicia and Gaza, passing by Judea probably without entering the Jewish dominated hill country, on his way into Egypt.

332 BC The 7 yr Famine Stela written in hieroglyphs located on Sehel Island in the Nile in Egypt, during the reign of the 3rd dynasty king Djoser.

In the 112th Olympiad (332 B.C.) Gryllus of Chalcis won the stadion race, and the archons at Athens were Nicetes, Aristophanes, Aristophon and Cephisophon. In the first year Alexander the son of Philippus captured Tyre and took possession of Egypt, where the natives willingly received him because of their hatred of the Persians. Then he ordered [? the foundation of the city of Alexandria] … He made an expedition to the temple of Ammon, and on his way he founded the city of Paraetonium. In the third year Alexander won another victory over Dareius, in a battle at Arbela. After that Dareius was treacherously killed by his own friends, and the empire of the Persians came to an end; it had lasted 233 years from Cyrus, who established it.

The Persian King Darius III twice sends on horseback to Alexander letters of friendship. The second time he offers a large ransom for his family, the ceding of all of the Persian Empire west of the Euphrates River, and the hand of his daughter in return for an alliance. Alexander rejects both letters and marches into Mesopotamia.

At the acropolis in Susa, an unidentified woman is buried in a bronze sarcophagus, wearing “a mass of finely-wrought and artistic gems and jewels” and two coins, one dating from 350 BC and the other from 332 BC. The tomb will remain unopened for more than 22 centuries, until French archaeologist Jacques de Morgan unearths it on February 10, 1901. (Speculation bg: Sisygambus, the mother of Darious III, After she was captured by Alexander at the Battle of Issus, she became devoted to him, and Alexander referred to her as “mother”. When Alexander died, she turned her face to the wall and refused to eat. She died in 323 BC, in Susa.)
333 BC

The Battle of Issus: Persian Empire ends and ushers in the Grecian Empire.

The Ram vs the Goat in Daniel 8:5-7 And as I was considering, suddenly a male goat came from the west, across the surface of the whole earth, without touching the ground; and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes. 6 Then he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing beside the river, and ran at him with furious power. 7 And I saw him confronting the ram; he was moved with rage against him, [attacked the ram, and broke his two horns. There was no power in the ram to withstand him, but he cast him down to the ground and trampled him; and there was no one that could deliver the ram from his hand.

333 BC: Battle of Issus: The Persian Empire becomes the Grecian Empire. During Darius’ III reign, in 333 BC, Alexander’s army crossed the Cilician Gates (a mountain pass in Turkey), met and defeated the main Persian army under the command of Darius III at the Battle of Issus in Turkey. Darius III was forced to flee the battle after his army broke, and in doing so left behind his wife, his two daughters, his mother Sisygambis, and a fabulous amount of treasure. He afterwards offered a peace treaty to Alexander, the concession of the lands he had already conquered, a ransom of 10,000 talents for his family, and one of his daughters in marriage. Alexander smugly replied that since he, Alexander, was now king of Asia, what Darius offered was already his. (Bible Bit)
334 BC

Daniel 11:3 Then a mighty king shall arise (Alexander the Great), who shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.
In 334 BC, Alexander started his army eastward toward Asia Minor. It was an army of nearly forty thousand, including secretaries, scientists and philosophers. Security on the home front was supplied by Greece’s navy, an army of 12,000 infantry, 1,500 cavalry in Macedonia and reserves elsewhere within the alliance who could be called up in an emergency — all under the command of Alexander’s most trusted general: the aging Antipater. Alexander’s opponent was the forty-six year-old Darius III, a refined and intelligent man but without much energy or foresight and a poor military commander. Darius underestimated Alexander’s strength, but he sent against him a force three times as large, a force that included able horsemen and 20,000 or so Greek mercenary infantrymen, largely men who had run from Greece with Philip’s defeat of their cities.
335 BC335 BC: Returning to Macedonia by way of Delphi (where the Pythian priestess acclaims him “invincible”), King Alexander III of Macedonia advances into Thrace in order to secure the Danube as the northern boundary of the Macedonian kingdom. After forcing the Shipka Pass and crushing the Triballi, he crosses the Danube to disperse the Getae. Turning west, he then defeats and shatters a coalition of Illyrians who are invading Macedonia.
336 BC336 BC: Caranus murdered by Alexander. He was the son of his father’s Philip II favorite wife, Cleopatra Eurydice, to keep him from claiming the throne after his father’s assassination. Cleopatra was the daughter of Hippostratus, the niece of Philip II’s greatest general Attalus.

In the 111th Olympiad (336 BC) Cleomantis of Cleitor won the stadion race, and the archons at Athens were Pythodelus, Euaenetus, Ctesicles and Nicocrates.
In the first year Philippus the king of the Macedonians was murdered by Pausanias, one of his bodyguards, and his son Alexander succeeded him as king. After assuming power, Alexander first defeated the Illyrians, Paeonians and other barbarian tribes who had revolted, and then captured and destroyed Thebes. In Rome, the priestesses of Vesta, who remain virgins for all their life, were accused of having been defiled … In the second year Alexander the king of the Macedonians crossed over to Asia and defeated the generals of Dareius the king of the Persians in a battle by the river Granicus. In the third year Alexander met Dareius in battle at Issus in Cilicia, and again defeated him. He killed many thousands of the Persians and their allies, and captured many prisoners and a great quantity of booty. At the same time, Alexander the Molossian crossed over to Italy in aid of the Greeks who lived there.


In the fourth year the Romans gave [the Campanians Roman citizenship (without the right to vote.)
337 BC337BC: Alexander killed Attalus, his father, Philip II’s greatest general.
338 BC338 BC: The Persian general and vizier, the eunuch Bagoas, falls out of favour with King Artaxerxes III. Bagoas seeks to remain in office by replacing Artaxerxes with his youngest son Arses, whom he thinks will be easier to control. So Bagoas murders Artaxerxes III and all his sons, other than Arses, who is then placed on the throne by Bagoas. Artaxerxes IV Arses is little more than a puppet-king while Bagoas acts as the power behind the throne.

The rostra, or speaking platform, is created by G. Maenius. Rome

King Archidamus III ▼is succeeded as the Eurypontid King of Sparta by his son, Agis III. ▲
339 BC339 BC: Philip II of Macedonia married Cleopatra Eurydice, daughter of his greatest general, Attalus.
340 BC340 BC: An embassy is sent by the Latin peoples to the Roman Senate asking for the formation of a single republic between Rome and Latium, in which both parties would be considered to be equal. As Rome considers that it is the leader of the Latin League, it refuses to treat the Latin people as being equal politically or have Latin people in the Roman Senate. With Rome’s refusal of the proposal, the Latin War begins. The Latins fight with the Campanians, while Rome joins the Samnites to attack the Latins. Only the Laurentes in Latium and the equites of Campania remain with the Romans, who, for their part, find support among the Paeligni.

In the 110th Olympiad (340 BC) Anticles of Athens won the stadion race, and the archons at Athens were Theophrastus, Lysimachides, Chaerondas and Phrynichus. In the first year the Samnites fought against the Romans. In the second year the Latins united in an attack on the Romans. In the third year Philippus, the king of the Macedonians, defeated the Athenians and Boeotians in the famous battle at Chaeroneia, with the help of his son Alexander, who distinguished himself by his bravery in the battle. Isocrates the teacher of rhetoric died, (at the age of about) ninety years … the eunuch (Bagoas) killed Arses the king of the Persians along with his brothers, and set up Dareius the son of Arsames, who belonged to the royal family, as king in Arses’ place. At the same time the Romans fought against the Latins. In the fourth year the assembly of the Greeks met and appointed Philippus to be supreme commander in the war against the Persians.
341 BC341 BC: Epicurus, Greek philosopher, founder of Epicureanism (307 BC) is born (d. 270 BC) an ancient school of philosophy founded in Athens by Epicurus. The school rejected determinism and advocated hedonism (pleasure as the highest good), but of a restrained kind: mental pleasure was regarded more highly than physical, and the ultimate pleasure was held to be freedom from anxiety and mental pain, especially that arising from needless fear of death and of the gods.
342 BC342 BC: In Macedonia, The Greek philosopher, Aristotle, is invited by Philip II to his capital at Pella to tutor his son, Alexander. As the leading intellectual figure in Greece, Aristotle is commissioned to prepare Alexander for his future role as a military leader.
343 BC

The end of Egypt’s natives to rule Egypt.
343 BC:The King of Persia, Artaxerxes III, personally leads the Persian forces invading Egypt. The Persians are keen to access Egypt’s gold and corn supplies. The town of Pelusium in the Nile Delta puts up resistance, but Pharaoh Nectanebo II is forced to retreat to Memphis. As the situation deteriorates, Nectanebo II leaves for exile in Nubia. His departure marks the end of the 30th Dynasty, the last native house to rule Egypt.


With Nectanebo II’s flight, all organized resistance to the Persians collapses, and Egypt once again is reduced to a satrapy of the Persian Empire. A Persian satrap is put in place in Egypt. The walls of the country’s cities are destroyed and its temples are plundered. Artaxerxes and his commander-in-chief, General Bagoas, leave Egypt loaded with treasure.

See: The Genealogy of the Medes and Persians.
344 BC344 BC: Sicily: The aristocracy of Syracuse appeal to their mother city of Corinth against their tyrant Dionysius II. The Corinthian general Timoleon is chosen to lead a liberation force to Sicily. Landing at Tauromenium (Taormina) in the summer, Timoleon faces two armies, one under Dionysius and the other under Hicetas (tyrant of nearby Leontini), who has also called in Carthaginian forces. By shrewd tactics Timoleon defeats his enemies and occupies Syracuse. Dionysius II goes into exile once more after the successful invasion by Timoleon of Corinth.

In the 109th Olympiad 344 B.C. Aristolycus [of Athens won the stadion race], and the archons at Athens were [Lyciscus], Pythodotus, Sosigenes and Nicomachus. In the second year Dionysius II, tyrant of Sicily, fell from power and sailed off to Corinth, where he survived as a schoolteacher. In the fourth year the eunuch Bagoas murdered Ochus, the king of the Persians, and set up Arses who was the youngest of Ochus’ sons as king, while he himself controlled the whole government.
345 BC345 BC: Supported by Thebes and Thessaly, Macedonia takes over Phocis’ votes in the Amphictyonic League, a Greek religious organization formed to support the greater temples of Apollo and Demeter. Despite some reluctance on the part of the Athenian leaders, Athens finally accepts Philip II’s entry into the Council of the League. The Athenian statesman, Demosthenes, is among those who recommend this stance in his oration On the Peace.
346 BC346 BC: Sicily: Dionysius II is restored to power in Syracuse.
347 BC347 BC: Coinage is introduced into Rome for the first time.
348 BC348 BC: Rome and Carthage make a trade agreement under which Carthage will not attack those Latin states which are faithful to Rome. This agreement demonstrates that Rome is now the dominant power in the Latin League.

349 BC349 BC: Macedonia: After recovering from illness, Philip II of Macedon turns his attention to the remaining Athenian controlled cities in Macedonia and to the city of Olynthus, in particular. The Athenians organize to send help.
350 BC350 BC: Aristotle argues for a spherical Earth using lunar eclipses and other observations. Also he discusses logical reasoning in Organon.

350 BC: Alexander I becomes king of Epirus ▲ after his brother-in-law Philip II of Macedon dethrones Alexander’s cousin Arymbas.▼

351 BC351 BC: Greece: Demosthenes tries to get the Athenians to cease depending on paid mercenaries and return to the old concept of a citizen army. He also delivers his first Philippic, warning Athenians of the folly of believing that Philip’s ill health will save Athens from the Macedonians. In response, Athens’ citizens votes for increased armaments.
352 BC352 BC: After two initial efforts, Philip II of Macedon drives the Phocians south after a major victory over them in the Battle of Crocus Field. Athens and Sparta come to the assistance of the Phocians and Philip is checked at Thermopylae. Philip does not attempt to advance into central Greece with the Athenians occupying this pass. With this victory, Philip accrues great glory as the righteous avenger of Apollo, since the Phocian general Onomarchos has plundered the sacred treasury of Delphi to pay his mercenaries. Onomarchos’ body is crucified, and the prisoners are drowned as ritual demanded for temple-robbers.

352 BC The tomb of King Mausolus of Caria, known as the Mausoleum, is built to house the remains of the dead King.

In the 107th Olympiad 352 B.C. Smicrinas [of Tarentum] won the stadion race, and the archons at Athens were [Aristodemus], Thessalus, [Apollodorus] and Callimachus. In the third year (349 BC) plebeian censors were elected at Rome for the first time.
353 BC353 BC: Persia: Mausolus, ▼King and Persian satrap of Caria, dies and is succeeded in 352 BC by Artemisia,▲ his sister and wife.
354 BC

Philip II (Alexander the Great’s father) loses an eye in the siege of Methone.
354 BC: Philip II of Macedon takes and destroys Methone, a town which has belonged to Athens. During the siege of Methone, Philip loses an eye.
355 BC355 BC: Greece: King Archidamus III of Sparta supports the Phocians against Thebes in the “Sacred War”.
356 BC356 BC: Birth year for Alexander the Great and ~ year for Hephaestion. Hephaestion will be Alexander’s soldier, general, and friend. When Alexander marries Sterateria (Darius’s daughter after his defeat and death), Hephaestion marries her sister, Drypetis.

The temple of Artemis at Ephesus was a large stone temple constructed around 550 BC. The temple of Artemis (a Greek Goddess) at Ephesus was destroyed on July 21, 356 BC in an act of arson committed by Herostratus. According to the story, his motivation was fame at any cost. The Ephesians, outraged, announced that Herostratus’ name never be recorded. The Greek historian Strabo later noted the name, which is how we know today. The temple was destroyed on the same night that Alexander the Great was born. Alexander, as king, offered to pay to rebuild the temple, but his offer was denied. Later, after Alexander died, the temple was rebuilt in 323 BC.
The new temple was destroyed by the Goths in 262 BC.
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/The_Seven_Wonders_of_the_World/The_Temple_of_Artemis
357 BC357 BC: Macedonia: Philip II of Macedon marries Olympias, the Molossian princess of Epirus thus helping to stabilize Macedonia’s western frontier.

357 BC: Sicily: The brother-in-law of Dionysius I, Dion, exiled from Syracuse in 366 BC by Dionysius II, assembles a force of 1,500 mercenaries at Zacynthus and sails to Sicily. Dion ▲wrests power from the weak Dionysius II, ▼who is exiled and flees to Locri.
358 BC358 BC: Persia: Artaxerxes III (“Ochus”)▲ succeeds Artaxerxes II ▼as King of Persia and restores central authority over the Persian empire’s satraps. To secure his throne he puts to death most of his relatives.

In Persia, a number of satraps of King Artaxerxes II begin a revolt, in alliance with Athens, Sparta, and Egypt, that lasts until
358 BC. YEAR NINE.

Artaxerxes II (404 BC – 358 BC)▼

See: Genealogy of the Medes and Persians
359 BCThe Macedonian King Perdiccas III ▼is killed while defending his country against an Illyrian attack led by King Bardylis. He is succeeded by his infant son, Amyntas IV. The child’s uncle, Philip II, assumes the regency. In the same year, Philip II declares himself king of Macedonia. Amyntas IV is not judged by Philip II to be a danger and remains alive while Philip II is King of Macedonia.

In Persia, a number of satraps of King Artaxerxes II begin a revolt, in alliance with Athens, Sparta, and Egypt, that lasts until
358 BC. YEAR EIGHT

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
360 BCThe King of Sparta, Agesilaus II, ▼dies at Cyrene, Cyrenaica, on his way home to Greece from Egypt. He is succeeded by his son Archidamus III ▲as Eurypontid king of Sparta.

360 BC: With the help of King Agesilaus II of Sparta, Nectanebo II ▲deposes Teos▼ and becomes king of Egypt. Teos flees to Susa and makes peace with the Persians. Nectanebo II pays the Spartans 230 talents for their help.

In Persia, a number of satraps of King Artaxerxes II begin a revolt, in alliance with Athens, Sparta, and Egypt, that lasts until 358 BC. YEAR SEVEN

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
361 BC361 BC: Greece: Plato returns once more to Syracuse (Sicily) to teach the young Syracusan tyrant Dionysius II. He fails to reconcile the tyrant to Dion, who Dionysius II banished in 366 BC. Because of this, Plato is forced to flee Syracuse to save his life.

In Persia, a number of satraps of King Artaxerxes II begin a revolt, in alliance with Athens, Sparta, and Egypt, that lasts until 358 BC. YEAR SIX

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
362 BCIn Persia, a number of satraps of King Artaxerxes II begin a revolt, in alliance with Athens, Sparta, and Egypt, that lasts until 358 BC. YEAR FIVE

362 BC: King Agesilaus II of Sparta arrives with 1,000 men to assist Egypt in its fight with Persia.

362 BC: Mausolus of Caria joins the revolt of the satraps of Anatolia against the Persian king Artaxerxes II.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
363 BC363 BC: The Egyptian Pharaoh Teos (or Tachos)▲ succeeds his father Nectanebo I ▼to the throne. Planning a great attack on Persia, he invites Sparta to help him.

In Persia, a number of satraps of King Artaxerxes II begin a revolt, in alliance with Athens, Sparta, and Egypt, that lasts until 358 BC. YEAR FOUR

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
364 BC

Phillip II of Macedon returns after being held as a hostage in Thebes since 369 BC.
364 BC: Philip II of Macedon, brother of the current reigning king of Macedonia (and father of the future Alexander the Great), returns to his native land after having being held as a hostage in Thebes since 369 BC.

In Persia, a number of satraps of King Artaxerxes II begin a revolt, in alliance with Athens, Sparta, and Egypt, that lasts until 358 BC. YEAR THREE

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
365 BC365 BC: Perdiccas III ▲of Macedon, son of Amyntas III and Eurydice II, kills Ptolemy of Aloros, who has been the regent of Macedon since he arranged the assassination of Perdiccas III’s brother Alexander II in 368 BC. With Ptolemy’s death, Perdiccas III becomes King of Macedon in his own right.

In Persia, a number of satraps of King Artaxerxes II begin a revolt, in alliance with Athens, Sparta, and Egypt, that lasts until 358 BC. YEAR TWO

Philip II of Macedon, brother of the current reigning king of Macedonia (and father of the future Alexander the Great), held as a hostage in Thebes 369 BC – 364 BC.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
366 BC366 BC: In Persia, a number of satraps of King Artaxerxes II begin a revolt, in alliance with Athens, Sparta, and Egypt, that lasts until 358 BC. YEAR ONE

Philip II of Macedon, brother of the current reigning king of Macedonia (and father of the future Alexander the Great), held as a hostage in Thebes 369 BC – 364 BC.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
367 BC

“Plato’s Republic”: How to have a righteous society.
367 BC: Plato’s Republic is completed. It lays down the rules for an ideal, righteous society and suggests that kings ought to be philosophers (or at least taught by philosophers).

Philip II of Macedon, brother of the current reigning king of Macedonia (and father of the future Alexander the Great), held as a hostage in Thebes 369 BC – 364 BC.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
368 BC368 BC: Alexander II, King of Macedonia (assassinated) ▼

Philip II of Macedon, (father of the future Alexander the Great), held as a hostage in Thebes 369 BC – 364 BC.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
369 BCPhilip II of Macedon, (father of the future Alexander the Great), held as a hostage in Thebes 369 BC – 364 BC.

369 BC: Cleomenes II ▲succeeds his brother Agesipolis II ▼as Agiad king of Sparta.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
370 BC370 BC: Eudoxus of Cnidus develops the method of exhaustion for mathematically determining the area under a curve.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
371 BC371 BC: It is suggested that the original comet associated with the Kreutz Sungrazers family of comets passes perihelion at this time. It is thought to have been observed by Aristotle and Ephorus during this year.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
372 BC372 BC: Troilus of Elis wins two equestrian events at the Olympic Games, which leads to referees being banned from competing in the Games.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
373 BC

Earthquake and Tsunami
373 AD: The Persian King Artaxerxes II launches an invasion of Egypt to bring that country back under Persian rule. The invasion is led by Pharnabazus. After initial successes, the Greek mercenaries fighting for the Persians push on towards Memphis. However, King Nectanebo I is able to gather his forces and repulse the Persian invasion.

373 AD: The ancient Greek city of Helike is destroyed by a massive earthquake and tsunami. The Temple of Apollo in Delphi is destroyed by the earthquake.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
374 BC374 BC: Cyprus: The King of Salamis, Evagoras ▼, is assassinated. He is succeeded by his son, Nicocles ▲, who continues his father’s liberal Hellenising policy in Cyprus, encouraged by Isocrates, who writes his Exhortation to Nicocles.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
375 BC375 BC: The Theban general, Pelopidas, is made the leader of the “Sacred Band”, a selected infantry body of 300. Learning that the Spartan garrison of Orchomenus (in Boeotia) is leaving for an expedition to Locris, Pelopidas sets out with the Sacred Band of Thebes and a small force of cavalry, intending to seize the city while it is unguarded. However, as the Thebans approach the city, they learn that a sizable force has been dispatched from Sparta to reinforce the garrison at Orchomenus and is approaching the city. Pelopidas retreats with his force, but before the Thebans can reach safety at Tegyra, they meet the original Spartan garrison returning from Locris. In the ensuing Battle of Tegyra, the Thebans rout the larger Spartan force.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
376 BC376 BC: The Thracian city of Abdera is sacked by the Triballi.

376 BC: The Athenian admiral Chabrias wins a naval victory for Athens over the Spartan fleet, off the island of Naxos (the Battle of Naxos). The battle is brought on by the Athenians to break the Spartans’ blockade of Athens’ corn-ships from the Black Sea.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
377 BC377 BC: Greece: Athens, in preparing for participation in the Spartan-Theban struggle, reorganizes its finances and its taxation, inaugurating a system whereby the richer citizens are responsible for the collection of taxes from the less rich.
The Peace of Antalcidas

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
378 BC378 BC: A Spartan attempt to seize Piraeus brings Athens closer to Thebes. The Athenian mercenary, Chabrias, defeats the Spartans in the battle. In fighting the battle, Chabrias invents a new defensive technique; he orders each soldier to receive a charge kneeling on his left knee, with his shield resting on the ground and spear pointed at the enemy.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
379 BC379 AD: Sparta suppresses the Chalcidian League and imposes terms favourable to King Amyntas III of Macedonia.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
380 BC380 BC: The Egyptian Pharaoh Hakor dies ▼and is succeeded by his son Nepherites II, ▲▼but he is overthrown by Nectanebo I ▲within the year, ending the Twenty-ninth dynasty of Egypt. Nectanabo (or more properly Nekhtnebef) becomes the first Pharaoh of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt.

Cleombrotus I ▲succeeds his brother Agesipolis I ▼as king of Sparta.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
381 BCArtaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
382 BC382 BC: King Antigonus I Monophthalmus (meaning “one-eyed” (d. 301 BC) – father of Demitrius. Antigonus and Demitrius almost take Alexander’s kingdom after his death. But are trumped by Alexander’s four generals who take his kingdom instead: fulfilling Daniel’s visions of the leopard with four heads and four wings and the goat with four horns.

382 BC: Birth of Philip II, king of Macedon (d. 336 BC) – father of Alexander the Great

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
383 BCArtaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
384 BCLysias, the Athenian orator, on the occasion of the Olympiad, rebukes the Greeks for allowing themselves to be dominated by the Syracusan tyrant Dionysius I and by the barbarian Persians.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
385 BC

The Milky Way
Democritus announces that the Milky Way is composed of many stars.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
386 BCArtaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
387 BCArtaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
388 BC388 B.C. First Antitrust trial: in Athens, Greece. In response to a negative supply shock to the grain market, regulators encouraged grain importers to form a buyers’ cartel (monopsony), hoping that it would reduce retail prices by first lowering wholesale grain prices. In reality, the decrease in wholesale prices resulted in a decrease in the willingness of producers in other regions to supply grain to Athens, and retail grain prices increased substantially. Grain importers soon found themselves on trial for their lives in what is probably the earliest recorded antitrust trial.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
389 BCArtaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
390 BC390 BC: Gauls sack Rome. Inner capitol is besieged for 7 months, before the invaders are bought off.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
391 BCArtaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
392 BCArtaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
393 BCArtaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
394 BC394 B: Battle of Coronea: Xenophon records the battle between the Spartans and Thessaly. “Shoving their shields together they shoved, fought, they dealt death, and breathed out life.”

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
395 BCArtaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
396 BC396 BC: Pay is introduced for Roman soldiers for the first time.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
397 BCArtaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
398 BCArtaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
399 BC

The murderous forced suicide of Socrates.
Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)

◄399 BC: On a day in 399 BC the philosopher Socrates stood before a jury of 500 of his fellow Athenians accused of “refusing to recognize the gods recognized by the state” and “of corrupting the youth.” If found guilty; his penalty could be death. The trial took place in the heart of the city, the jurors seated on wooden benches surrounded by a crowd of spectators. Socrates’ accusers (three Athenian citizens) were allotted three hours to present their case, after which, the philosopher would have three hours to defend himself. Socrates was 70 years old and familiar to most Athenians. His anti-democratic views had turned many in the city against him. Two of his students, Alcibiades and Critias, had twice briefly overthrown the democratic government of the city, instituting a reign of terror in which thousands of citizens were deprived of their property and either banished from the city or executed.

After hearing the arguments of both Socrates and his accusers, the jury was asked to vote on his guilt. Under Athenian law the jurors did not deliberate the point. Instead, each juror registered his judgment by placing a small disk into an urn marked either “guilty” or “not guilty.” Socrates was found guilty by a vote of 280 to 220.

The jurors were next asked to determine Socrates’ penalty. His accusers argued for the death penalty. Socrates was given the opportunity to suggest his own punishment and could probably have avoided death by recommending exile. Instead, the philosopher initially offered the sarcastic recommendation that he be rewarded for his actions. When pressed for a realistic punishment, he proposed that he be fined a modest sum of money. Faced with the two choices, the jury selected death for Socrates.

The philosopher was taken to the near-by jail where his sentence would be carried out. Athenian law prescribed death by drinking a cup of poison hemlock. Socrates would be his own executioner.
400 BC

Screws/Bolts invented
The screw thread was invented in about 400 BC by Archytas of Tarentum (428 BC – 350 BC). Archytas is sometimes called the founder of mechanics and was a contemporary of Plato. One of the first applications of the screw principle was in presses for the extraction of oils from olives and juice from grapes. The oil presses in Pomeii were worked by the screw principle.

Olives and grapes and their extraction play a large symbolic role in the Bible. Olives are symbolic of Jews being used for anointing (Jesus in the Garden of Gethsamane meaning “oil press”, while grapes are symbolic of Gentiles. The grapes of God’s wrath are used in God’s judgement of the Gentile nations or the blood of grapes for the New Covenant at the last supper.)

The Garden of Gethsemane is a small grove consisting of eight ancient olive trees located at the foot of the Mount of Olives just outside the Old City of Jerusalem. Its name derives from the Aramaic word gat semãnê, which means ​’olive press‘.

Image result for oil press in Gethsemane
Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
401 BCArtaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
402 BCArtaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
403 BCArtaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
404 BC

End of Persian control in Egypt
404 BC End of Persian Rule in Egypt. The Persian King Darius II dies of an illness in Babylon. He is succeeded by his son Artaxerxes II (Memnon—’the Mindful’). Amyrtaeus of Sais successfully leads a revolt against the Persian Empire’s control of the Egyptian delta. He becomes the first (and only) pharaoh of the Twenty-eighth Dynasty.

Artaxerxes II▲ (404 BC – 358 BC)
405 BC

The Plague

Athens capitulates to the Spartans

Plague breaks out in the camp of the Carthaginians in Sicily and Hannibal Mago dies. Himilco assumes command and captures Agrigentum (Acragas), Gela and Camarina. Gela is destroyed and its treasures sacked. The survivors take refuge in Syracuse. The plague is carried back to Carthage by its soldiers.

Darius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
406 BC
3354–3355 Hebrew Calendar
Socrates
Image result for Socrates
Socrates: picture taken from statue and colored.

Darius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
407 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
408 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
409 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
410 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
411 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
412 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
413 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
414 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
415 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
416 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
417 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
418 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
419 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.

Solar Eclipse Dec 17, 419 BC

Sicilian Expedition – 419 BC: Argive Attack on Epidaurus. Their goal is to ensure the neutrality of Corinth and give the Athenians shorter passage for their reinforcements from Aegina. The Argives ravage the Epidaurian territory but are unable to take the city. During the winter, the Spartans send a garrison of 300 men to Epidaurus. The Argives complain to tghe Athenians of this Spartan involvement, but nothing comes of it. Separately, the Argives again try to take the city of Epidaurus but fail. https://strengthandhonor10.wordpress.com/sicilian-expedition-419-bc/
420 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.
421 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.

Archidamian War – 421 BC: Athenian/Spartan Treaty: In early 421 BC, Athens and Sparta again agree to a 1 year armistice, with the hope of soon making a longer treaty. Each side agrees to restore its conquests except for Athenian possession of Nisaea. Following this, Athens and Sparta agree to a separate 50 year alliance, as Spartan allies do not want to sign the treaty with Athens. For More…https://strengthandhonor10.wordpress.com/archidamian-war-421-bc/
422 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.

422 BC, the Athenian Phaex sets sail with 2 colleagues as ambassador from Athens to Italy and Sicily. His aim is to convince the Sicilians to turn against Syracuse and form a coalition against her. Phaex is successful with 2 smaller cities, but fails with Gela and realizing his mission won’t succeed, he sails back to Athens. https://strengthandhonor10.wordpress.com/archidamian-war-422-bc/
423 BCDarius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia. ▲

In early 423 BC, the Spartans and Athenians make an armistice for one year. https://strengthandhonor10.wordpress.com/archidamian-war-423-bc/
424 BC

Ezra 10:6
The Archidamian War continues– 424 BC. For details see https://strengthandhonor10.wordpress.com/archidamian-war-424-bc/

Darius II ~423 BC to 405 BC King of Persia.

The Elephantine papyri mention Darius II as a contemporary of the high priest Johanan of Ezra 10:6

Then Ezra rose up from before the house of God, and went into the chamber of Jehohanan the son of Eliashib; and when he came there, he ate no bread and drank no water, for he mourned because of the guilt of those from the captivity.
425 BC

Queen Esther
During the winter of 425 BC the Athenians learn that King Artaxerxes, son of Xerxes, had died. ▼ wife: Queen Esther

Artaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Suceeded by Xerxes II for 45 days, then by Sogdianus for a short rule of a little more than six months before being succeeded by Darius II ~423 BC to 405 BC.
426 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.
427 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

427 BC: Sparta’s King Archidamus II▼ is succeeded by his son Agis II. ▲
428 BC

Plague: Typhus
Artaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

428 BC: Sophocles writes Oedipus the King.

The plague wipes out over 30,000 citizens. Modern DNA analyses suggest the mortal disease may have been typhus
429 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.
430 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

430 BC: The plague in Athens kills thousands of the city’s inhabitants
431 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

The Greek physician and philosopher Empedocles articulates the notion that the human body has four humors: blood, bile, black bile, and phlegm, a belief which dominates medical thinking for centuries.
432 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

432 BC: End of Nehemiah as governor of Jerusalem ▼
433 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

Nehemiah is governor of Jerusalem 444 BC – 432 BC.

433 BC: The temple of Apollo at Rome is built.
434 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

Nehemiah is governor of Jerusalem 444 BC – 432 BC.

Anaxagoras is arrested by Pericles’ political opponents on a charge of contravening the established dogmas of Athenian religion. It needs Pericles’ power of oratory and persuasion to secure his release. Even so he is fined and forced to retire from Athens to Lampsacus in Ionia. While in prison, Anaxagoras tries to square the circle with straightedge and compasses.
435 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

Nehemiah is governor of Jerusalem 444 BC – 432 BC.

435 BC: A gold and ivory statue of Zeus, king of the gods, is completed at Elis by the Athenian sculptor Phidias for the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. The statue becomes one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The Olympian Zeus is about seven times life size (or 13 metres) and occupies the full height of the temple.
436 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

Nehemiah is governor of Jerusalem 444 BC – 432 BC.
437 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

Nehemiah is governor of Jerusalem 444 BC – 432 BC.
438 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

Nehemiah is governor of Jerusalem 444 BC – 432 BC.

438 BC: The colossal statue of the Athena Parthenos, which Phidias has made for the Parthenon, is completed and dedicated. It is made of gold and ivory and stands some 12 metres high.
439 BC

439 BC Severe famine in Rome
Artaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

Nehemiah is governor of Jerusalem 444 BC – 432 BC.

439 AD: Spurius Maelius, a wealthy Roman plebeian, tries to buy popular support with the aim of making himself king. During the severe famine affecting Rome, he buys up a large store of grain and sells it at a low price to the people of Rome – the first time this had been done in Rome. This leads Lucius Minucius, the patrician praefectus annonae (“president of the market”), to accuse Maelius of seeking to take over the government. Maelius is summoned before Cincinnatus (who has again become dictator of the Roman Republic, to put down a revolt by the plebeians), but refuses to appear. Shortly thereafter, Maelius is killed by Gaius Servilius Ahala and his house is burnt to the ground.
440 BC

Discovery of Atoms

Famine in Rome
Artaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

Nehemiah is governor of Jerusalem 444 BC – 432 BC.

440 BC: Democritus proposes the existence of indivisible particles, which he calls atoms.

440 BC: The stela, Demeter, Persephone and Triptolemos, from Eleusis, is made

440 BC: A famine strikes in Rome.
441 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

Nehemiah is governor of Jerusalem 444 BC – 432 BC.

Zhou ai wang▲▼ becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China but dies before the year’s end, to be succeeded by Zhou si wang. ▲
442 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

Nehemiah is governor of Jerusalem 444 BC – 432 BC.
443 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

Nehemiah is governor of Jerusalem 444 BC – 432 BC.

443 BC: Pericles founds the colony of Thurii near the site of the former city of Sybaris, in southern Italy. Its colonists include Herodotus and Lysias.
444 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

▲ Nehemiah is governor of Jerusalem 444 BC – 432 BC.
445 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.
446 BC

Nehemiah, was cup bearer to king Artaxerxes I, with Queen Esther at his side.

The command is given to rebuild the wall. The beginning of Daniel’s 70 weeks: 446 BC

Daniel 9:25 prophesy begins

March 31, 446 BC to April 25, 31 AD on the Roman Calendar (Julian Calendar).
173,880 days


Click here to see Bible: Daniel Chapter Nine
Click here to see Topic: Explanation of Daniel’s Days
Artaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC.

In the 20th year of Artaxerxes I , Nehemiah was cup-bearer to the king.

Nehemiah is given the command to return and rebuild the city during the reign of Artaxerxes I. (3rd return) Nehemiah was made governor of Jerusalem and allowed to return and rebuild the CITY. (Neh. 2:1 and Neh. 5:12) And it came to pass in the month of Nisan, in the twentieth year of King Artaxerxes, The reign of the Persian King Artaxerxes I Yr 20

(Note) An argument exists that this took place in the 19th year. See Wilhelm Rudolph in his major Nehemiah commentary (1949), p. 102, who suggested that the Hebrew read “in the nineteenth year of Artaxerexes the king”: If Artaxerxes I’s first year is 464 BC, then 446 BC would be the 19th year)

The month of Chislev (Nisan), in the twentieth year, as I (Nehemiah) was in Shushan the citadel, that Hanani one of my brethren came with men from Judah; and I asked them concerning the Jews who had escaped,
447 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 19
448 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 18
449 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 17
450 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 16

450 BC: Ancient Document “The Twelve Tables” (examples below:)
* A dreadfully deformed child shall be quickly killed.
* A child born after ten months since the father’s death, will not be admitted into a legal inheritance.
* Any woman who does not wish to be subjected in this manner to the hand of her husband should be absent three nights in succession every year, and so interrupt the usucapio of each year.
* If one is slain while committing theft by night, he is rightly slain.
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/ancient/twelve_tables.asp

450 BC: The name of the month of February: Februus (Etruscan god of death) Februarius (mensis) (Latin for “month of purification (rituals)” it is said to be a Sabine word, the last month of ancient pre-450 BC Roman calendar). It is related to fever. The month of February means death. It is related to fever.
451 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 15
452 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 14
453 BC

Queen Esther approaches the King which is against the law: “If I perish, I perish!”

Attila the Hun 453 AD — bled to death from a nosebleed on his wedding night.
Artaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 13

Then many of the people of the land became Jews, because fear of the Jews fell upon them.

So Mordecai went out from the presence of the king in royal apparel of blue and white, with a great crown of gold and a garment of fine linen and purple; and the city of Shushan rejoiced and was glad. He is in the position to be able to lead and direct Ezra and Nehemiah.

Esther: There were no reported incidents calling for reprisal.

Esther: the day passed without cause.

Swift steeds were sent out to the 26 provinces over the entire empire from India to Ethiopia announcing that the Jews could arm and avenge themselves on their enemies on the 13th day of Adar.

May/June: The second proclamation is made on the 23rd day of Sivan. So the king’s scribes were called at that time, in the third month, which is the month of Sivan, on the twenty-third day; and it was written.

The king gives Esther and Mordecai his ring to make another proclamation to save the Jews.

Haman, the Amalakite, is hung on the gallows he made for Mordecai.

Banquet night two. Haman realizes who Queen Esther is. He pleads for his life and stirs the wrath of the king

Banquet night one
Esther approaches the king
I will go to the king, which is against the law; and if I perish, I perish!” [Esther 3:15]
Three days of fasting and praying by the Jews for Queen Esther

Haman sends out a letter for countrymen to kill and plunder the Jews on the chosen date of Dec 12, 461 BC. The letters were sent out prior to the 23rd day of Sivan. And the letters were sent by couriers into all the king’s provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to annihilate all the Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, on the 13th day of the 12th month, which is the month of Adar, and to plunder their possessions. [Esther 3:13-14]

Attila the Hun 453 AD — bled to death from a nosebleed on his wedding night.
454 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 12
455 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 11
456 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 10
457 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 9
458 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 8
459 BC

Esther becomes Queen of Persia. 2nd return to Jerusalem led by Ezra the scribe.
Artaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 7

Esther becomes Queen of Persia. Esther 2:16 So Esther was taken to King Ahasuerus, into his royal palace, in the tenth month, which is the month of Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign. 17 The king loved Esther more than all the other women, and she obtained grace and favor in his sight more than all the virgins; so he set the royal crown upon her head and made her queen instead of Vashti.

2nd return. Led by Ezra in the 7th yr of Artaxerxes I. [Ezra 7:7] Those who came with Zerubbabel were Jeshua, Nehemiah, Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mordecai (Esther’s Uncle), Bilshan, Mispar, Bigvai, Rehum, and Baanah. These are the people (Great grandchildren) of the province who came back from the captivity, 581 BC.
460 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 6
461 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 5
462 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 4

The reign of the Persian King Artaxerxes I: Yr 3 (4). Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus (this was the Ahasuerus who reigned over 127 provinces, from India to Ethiopia), 2 in those days when King Ahasuerus sat on the throne of his kingdom, which was in Shushan the citadel, 3 that in the third year of his reign he made a feast for all his officials and servants.

462 AD: Pericles starts to effectively be the leader of Athens.
463 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. 3
464 BCArtaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 2
465 BC

Xerxes I dies, succeeded by Artaxerxes I.
Artaxerxes King of Persia 465-424 BC. Yr 1

Artabanus gains control of the Achaemenid state for several months (Aug-Nov). Betrayed by Megabyzus. Artabaus is killed by Artaxerxes.

King Xerxes I dies.▼ King Xerxes I of the Persian Empire, together with his eldest son, is murdered by one of his Ministers, Artabanus the Hyrcanian August 11, 465 BC. The Persian general, Megabyzus, is thought to have been one of the conspirators in the assassination. Artabanus gains control of the Achaemenid state for several months. However, he is betrayed by Megabyzus and is killed by Xerxes’ son, Artaxerxes.
466 BC466 BC: Kimon carries the war against Persia into Asia Minor and wins the Battle of the Eurymedon in Pamphylia. This is a decisive defeat of the Persians as Kimon’s land and sea forces capture the Persian camp and destroy or capture the entire Persian fleet of 200 triremes (manned by Phoenicians). Many new allies of Athens are now recruited, such as the trading city of Phaselis on the Lycian-Pamphylian border.
467 BC467 BC: The first recorded sighting of Halley’s Comet occurs.
468 BC468 BC: Sparta faces trouble near home, chiefly from Arcadia with the support of Argos. Argos regains control of Tiryns.
469 BC469 BC: Greece: The island of Naxos wishes to secede from the Delian League, but is blockaded by Athens and forced to surrender. Naxos becomes a tribute-paying member of the Delian League. This action is considered high-handed and resented by the other Greek city states.
470 BC

Atoms
Approximate birth date of Democritus by Thrasyllus 470-370 BC: (Apollodorus, placed his birth ten years later. However; Democritus mentions that he became acquainted with the Chaldean magi. A certain “Ostanes”, one of the magi accompanying Xerxes was said to have taught him.) [Democritus and his friend, Leucippus, held that everything is composed of “atoms”, which are physically, but not geometrically, indivisible; that between atoms lies empty space; that atoms are indestructible; have always been, and always will be, in motion; that there are an infinite number of atoms, and kinds of atoms, which differ in shape, and size.
471 BC

Decimation
The earliest documented unit decimation occurred in 471 BC during the Roman Republic’s early wars against the Volsci and is recorded by Livy. The practice was revived by Crassus in 71 BC in the Third Servile War against Spartacus. It occurs when a man or men have lost their nerve to fight (mutinous or cowardly) and a unit is punished by lottery. Most notabley when Cracus fought the escapted slave Spartacus in 73 BC.
472 BC472 AD: The tragedy The Persians is produced by Aeschylus. It is the oldest surviving Classical Greek play.
473 BC
474 BC
475 BC475 BC: Cimon leads an Athenian attack on the island of Skyros and expels the indigenous inhabitants who are regarded as pirates.
476 BC476 BC: Convicted in Sparta on the charge of accepting a bribe from the Aleudae family whilst leading an expedition to Thessaly against the family for their collaboration with the Persians, the Spartan King Leotychidas ▼flees to the temple of Athena Alea in Tegea, Arcadia. A sentence of exile is passed upon him; his house is razed, and his grandson, Archidamus II,▲ ascends the Spartan throne in his place.
477 BCThe Spartan co-ruler Leotychides and the Athenian leader Themistocles lead a fleet and army to reoccupy northern Greece and to punish the aristocratic family of the Aleuads for having aided the Persians. Leotychides is caught accepting a bribe during the operations in Thessaly.
478 BCWhile Pausanias is occupying Byzantium, his arrogance and his adoption of Persian clothing and manners offends the allies and raises suspicions of disloyalty. Pausanias is recalled to Sparta, where he is tried and acquitted of the charge of treason, but he is not restored to his command.
479 BC

Xerxes I fleet defeated at Mycale.
27 August—The Battle of Plataea in Boeotia ends the Persian invasions of Greece as the Persian general Mardonius is routed by the Greeks under Pausanias, nephew of the former Spartan King, Leonidas I. The Athenian contingent is led by the repatriated Aristides. Mardonius is killed in the battle and the Greeks capture enormous amounts of booty.

479 BC: the rest of the Persian army was scattered at Plataea (479 BC). In the same year Xerxes’ fleet was defeated at Mycale.
480 BC

The Battle of Thermopylae prophecy. Daniel 11:2
480 BC: The Battle of Thermopylae was the Persian invasion of 480 BC. The Greek force was very small but was determined to make a stand against the huge Persian army. Xerxes had made an alliance with Carthage, and thus deprived Greece of the support of the powerful monarchs of Syracuse and Agrigentum. Many smaller Greek states, moreover, took the side of the Persians, especially Thessaly, Thebes and Argos, fulfilling the prophecy “he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia” All of Greece was in fear, knowing that the army of the Persian king Xerxes had begun its invasion of Greece. Already the Thessalians had gone over to the Persian side, but some Greek cities had come together and forgotten their usual rivalries, determining to stop the Persian invasion. These cities agreed that Sparta would lead the Greek army, as her reputation in war was unmatched by any other Greek state.

The Greeks had chosen to defend a narrow pass, or gap, between the mountains of central Greece and the sea, called Thermopylae. This pass was part of the route into Greece from the north. Here the Greek force now waited, made up of only 300 Spartans under their king, Leonidas, and about 6,000 soldiers from other Greek cities. They faced a Persian army of perhaps 100,000 men… The Spartans, a highly regarded state of warriors, were preparing to fight to the death.

After the nerve-wracking wait, the Persians launched their attack. The Greeks were defending the pass from behind the wall that blocked the path. They took it in turns to hold the front line and fought off wave after wave of attacking Persians. In the narrow space, the Persians could not make use of their greater numbers and the longer spears of the Greeks meant that they inflicted many casualties on the Persians. The Spartans also used a clever strategy to further overwhelm their enemy. They pretended to retreat so that the Persians chased after them, but would then turn upon the Persians and in the confusion kill many of the enemy.

In this way two full days of battle passed, with the Persians unable to defeat the much smaller army of Greeks. The Persians had lost many men, but their luck was about to change. A Greek traitor came to the Persian king with information of huge importance. Above the pass of Thermopylae was another path that was known to local people only. It would allow the Persians to come secretly through the mountains and round behind the Greek army guarding the pass below. The Greeks would then be trapped with the Persians in front of, and behind them.

The Spartans withdrew to a hillock near the pass, together with a few other Greek soldiers who had refused to leave. They fought the Persians with all their remaining strength. When their weapons broke, they fought with their hands and teeth. But the Persian soldiers vastly outnumbered them and finally the Spartans fell, overwhelmed with a volley of arrows fired by the Persians.

And so the Spartans and those other Greeks who fought to the death had lost the battle for Thermopylae. The Persian army could now march into central Greece, wreaking havoc and destruction. But…

Instead…the Persians moved on to Attica and found it deserted. They set fire to Athens with flaming arrows. What the Greeks had lost on land was being won at sea. Xerxes’ fleet held the Athenian ships bottled up between the coast of Attica and the island of Salamis. His ships outnumbered the Greek ships three to one. The Persians had expected an easy victory, but one after another their ships were sunk or crippled. Crowded into the narrow strait, the heavy Persian vessels moved with difficulty. The lighter Greek ships rowed out from a circular formation and rammed their prows into the clumsy enemy vessels. Two hundred Persian ships were sunk, others were captured, and the rest fled. Xerxes and his forces hastened back to Persia. http://www.ancientgreece.co.uk/war/home_set.html

Daniel 11:2 “Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia, and the fourth shall be far richer than they all; and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.” See the exploits above.
481 BC481-484 BC: The revolt of Vahan Mamikonian secures religious and political fredom for Armenia.
482 BC481-484 BC: The revolt of Vahan Mamikonian secures religious and political fredom for Armenia.

482 BC: Rebellion of Babylonians against Persian Rule
483 BC481-484 BC: The revolt of Vahan Mamikonian secures religious and political fredom for Armenia.

483 AD: Xerxes I of Persia is encouraged by his cousin and brother-in-law, Mardonius, supported by a strong party of exiled Greeks, to take revenge for the defeat that Darius I suffered at the hands of the Greeks at Marathon in 490 BC. In response, Xerxes prepares for a major expedition to crush the Greeks. To avoid a repeat of the significant losses to the Persian fleet that occurred in 492 BC, Xerxes has a canal cut through the promontory of Mount Athos.
484 BC481-484 BC: The revolt of Vahan Mamikonian secures religious and political fredom for Armenia.

~484-425 BC: Herodotus. Greek historian wrote: “Neither snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds.”
485 BC485 BC: Xerxes I▲ Becomes the Persian King
486 BCDarius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) dies ▼Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.
487 BCDarius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.
488 BCDarius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.
489 BCDarius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.
490 BCDarius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.

Sept 490 BC: The battle of Marathon is one of history’s most famous military engagements. It is also one of the earliest recorded battles. Their victory over the Persian invaders gave the fledgling Greek city states confidence in their ability to defend themselves and belief in their continued existence. The battle is therefore considered a defining moment in the development of European culture.
In September of 490 BC a Persian armada of 600 ships disgorged an invasion force of approximately 20,000 infantry and cavalry on Greek soil just north of Athens. Their mission was to crush the Greek states in retaliation for their support of their Ionian cousins who had revolted against Persian rule.
Undaunted by the numerical superiority of the invaders, Athens mobilized 10,000 hoplite warriors to defend their territory. The two armies met on the Plain of Marathon twenty-six miles north of Athens. The flat battlefield surrounded by hills and sea was ideal for the Persian cavalry. Surveying the advantage that the terrain and size of their force gave to the Persians, the Greek generals hesitated.
One of the Greek generals – Miltiades – made a passionate plea for boldness and convinced his fellow generals to attack the Persians. Miltiades ordered the Greek hoplites to form a line equal in length to that of the Persians. Then – in an act that his enemy believed to be complete madness – he ordered his Greek warriors to attack the Persian line at a dead run. In the ensuing melee, the middle of the Greek line weakened and gave way, but the flanks were able to engulf and slaughter the trapped Persians. An estimated 6,400 Persians were slaughtered while only 192 Greeks were killed.
The remaining Persians escaped on their ships and made an attempt to attack what they thought was an undefended Athens.

However, the Greek warriors made a forced march back to Athens and arrived in time to thwart the Persians.

490 BC: The Battle of Marathon. Led by Xerxes I (Darius’s I son). The invasion of the Battle of Marathon was led by Xerxes I, Darius’s I son. After initial Persian victories, the Persians were eventually defeated, both at sea and on land. This humiliation led to the attempt to conquer Greece in 480 BC at the battle of Thermopylae.

490 BC: “Persia had a huge empire and had every intention of adding Greece to it. The Persian king Darius I (Successor of Cyrus the Great who conquered Babylon) first attacked Greece in 490 BC, but was defeated at the Battle of Marathon by a mainly Athenian force.” “The first place of battle in the Persian wars was at the city of Marathon, not far from Athens. For several days, nothing happened, as both armies readied themselves for action. Then suddenly, the smaller Greek army charged, and caught the Persians totally by surprise. In the course of one day, over 6,500 Persian soldiers are killed. The Greeks lost only 192 soldiers! Legend has it that a man ran all the way from Marathon to Athens to bring news of the Greek victory. The distance that the messenger covered was around 26 miles. This is how we get the 26-mile distance and name of the modern marathons that are run today! ” The invasion of the Battle of Marathon was led by Xerxes I, Darius’s I son. After initial Persian victories, the Persians were eventually defeated, both at sea and on land. This humiliation led to the attempt to conquer Greece in 480 BC at the battle of Thermopylae.
491 BCDarius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.
492 BCDarius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.
493 BCDarius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.
494 BCDarius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.
495 BCDarius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.
496 BCDarius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.
497 BCDarius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.
498 BCDarius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.
499 BCDarius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.
500 BC515-500 BC: A Chinese record documents the number of royal concubines who had abortions in China.

Darius I the Great Hystaspes (522 – 486 BC) Persian Throne. He rules over the captives from Jerusalem.

500 BC: the Germanic tribes appear in northern Germany, the Nordic Bronze Iron Age.
Cont. See Timeline 501 BC – 1000 BC
311 BC – 500 BC

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