BIBLE: Luke Chapter 1 – Headline “Majestically Prophetically”

SEVEN STAR CHAPTER (with links provided)

Words in italic type have been added for clarity. They are not found in the original Hebrew or Aramaic.

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Painting of The Census of Joseph and Mary

Luke 1

What should I learn from this chapter?

  • Two miraculous births: a barren woman and a virgin
  • The second swallows up the first (the second is greater than the first)
  • The angel Gabriel
  • The birth and death date of Jesus with verification
  • The division of Abijah
  • the 6th month

The first chapter of Luke may be the most difficult to discuss in detail due to the urge to calculate the dates of the month and day of John the Baptist’s birth and consequently Jesus’ birth; impossible due to the number unknowns at that time, the best one can do is to either postulate on the most logical outcome or to defer to no logical outcomes.

However; until further information is found either is astronomy, archeology or other technologies, the best one can do is to outline some of the details of the month and days.

However; with the inclusion of Luke 3, it is possible to determine the births took place in either 1 BC or 1 AD. One is also able to determine that the date of Jesus’ baptism took place between June and Sept, 29 AD. His crucifixion date is Wednesday, Nissan 14, 31 AD (the day the Passover lamb was slaughtered). The Sabbath day following His crucifixion was the Celebrated Passover when the Passover lamb was eaten.

The proofs of the dates are found in Luke chapter 1 and Luke chapter 3 by clicking on links provided.

Dedication to Theophilus

NOTE: Theophilus is the name or honorary title of the person to whom the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles are addressed (Luke 1:3, Acts 1:1). It is thought that both the Gospel of Luke and Acts of the Apostles were written by the same author, and often argued that the two books were originally a single unified work.  Both Luke and Acts were written in a refined Koine Greek, and the name “θεόφιλος” (“Theophilos”), as it appears therein, means friend of God or (be)loved by God or loving God in the Greek language. No one knows the true identity of Theophilus and there are several conjectures and traditions around an identity. In English Theophilus is also written “Theophilos”, both a common name and an honorary title among the learned (academic) Romans and Jews of the era. The life of Theophilus would coincide with the writing of Luke and the author of the Acts.

Luke 1:1 Inasmuch as many have taken in hand to set in order a narrative of those things which (or: are most surely believed) have been fulfilled among us,
Luke 1:just as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us,
  • Luke was written about 85 AD (approx 49 to 59 years after the crucifixion). The writer of the Gospel of Luke is unknown although known to have also been the author of the book of the Acts of the Apostles.
  • The eyewitnesses and ministers of the Word in some way delivered the Word to the author.
  • Luke was written during the reign of Domitian, the Roman Emperor during years 81 to 96 AD. He was known for being one of the worst Roman emperors in history. With his narcissism and suspicion controlling his thoughts and decisions, making his actions cruel and unjust.
    https://www.romecitytour.it/blog/who-was-emperor-domitian/
    Christian persecution began under Nero but it got to a whole new level under Domitian. https://bible.fandom.com/wiki/Emperor_Domitian
Luke 1:it seemed good to me also, having (Lit. accurately followed) had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write to you an orderly account, most excellent Theophilus,
  • A statement that the events are presumed to be in sequential order.
Luke 1:that you may know the certainty of those things in which you were instructed.
  • A statement of the certainty of the collaboration of the eyewitnesses passed on to the authors of the gospels.

John’s Birth Announced to Zacharias

Luke 1:There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea,
  • Herod:
    • Born: 73 BC Died: March/April 4 BC in Jericho
    • It is recorded that Herod died immediately after the slaughter of the innocent boys in Bethlehem who were 2 years old and under. Jesus would probably be one year old or less since Herod wanted to be sure no male would escape. This would assume Jesus was born 5-6 BC. There is more confusion to the date of Herod’s death because the numbers do not add up with the reign of Tiberius Caesar and the age of Jesus when he was baptized in Luke chapter 3.
    • The fact that the Bible claims that Jesus was born before Herod died creates a problem that scholars have long been debating. Was Jesus actually born in 4 B.C, before Herod died? Or, did Herod live longer than the historical records suggest?

FACT ONE: The events of Luke 1 occurred during the reign of Herod “The Great” to define him apart from his many sons, also called “Herods”. It was Herod Antipas, Herod the Great’s son, who took part in John the Baptist’s beheading and Jesus’ crucifixion. However; at Jesus’ birth it was the father “Herod the Great” who was the Jewish king elected by the Roman Senate, specifically, Julius Caesar and Mark Anthony appointed him as governor to keep watch over the country. He was the son of an Idumean who had been forced to covert to Judaism. After Caesar’s death, Cassius, Mark Antony, and Octavian all struggled for control of the Roman Empire. They all kept Herod “The Great” in power.

a certain priest named Zacharias, of the division of Abijah. His wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth.
  • Elizabeth was the daughter of the 59th High Priest (35 BC to 23 BC) Jeshua III , son of
    ben Phaebi ben Boethus

    Under King Herod, Jeshua III was ousted, demoted, or executed. He was the grandfather of the future “temple virgin” Mary (Miriam) the mother of Yehoshua (Jesus).
  • In the place of Jeshua III, Herod “The Great” promoted Simon IV Boethus instead to the office of the High Priest. (Jeshua III was Succeeded by Simon IV Boethus)
    http://www.biblesearchers.com/hebrewchurch/primitive/losttribesisrael1.shtml
  • Jeshua III had the three following daughters: Click here: Jesus’ Genealogy: Topic: Bible at a Glance. Then a pop up appears. Click on link at top of pop up.
    • 1) Anne/Hannah, the eldest, married Heli (Alexander III “Helios”) of the Rhesaite Line to the Davidic throne, Heli was also executed by Herod. Heli (the biblical Heli), was heir to the vanquished Hasmonean dynasty of Jewish priest-kings and became a Jewish metal merchant magnate who with his half brother, the Roman appointed Decurion Joseph of Arimathea, controlled the strategic military metals of the tin, antimony and lead mining industry in Cornwall England.
    • 2) JoAnna (Jane) who married Joachim of the Onaidite line to the Davidic Jewish throne. They had all daughters with no male heirs causing it to be the end of his line. The Toabite line and the Onaidite lines were first to the Davidic throne. Both came to and end with no male heirs. The only two lines to the Davidic throne left were the line of Joseph, the Abiudite Line, and the line of Mary through the Rhesaite Line of her father Helios/Heli. Therefore; through divine intervention, Jesus was in line to the Davidic throne through both His legal parents.
    • 3) Elizabeth married Priest Zacharias, the parents of John the Baptist.
  • If Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit on Kislev 24, that was the day the foundation stone was laid.
    Ephesians 2:20 having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief cornerstone, (The cornerstone is also called the foundation stone)
  • It’s possible Jesus was born during the Feast of Tabernacles in the month of Tishri. John 1:14, literally says in the Greek, “And the Word became flesh and tabernacled among us.”
Luke 1:And they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless.
Luke 1:But they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren, and they were both well advanced in years.
Luke 1:So it was, that while he was serving as priest before God in the order of his division (lot),
Luke 1:according to the custom of the priesthood, (he was chosen by lot) his lot fell to burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord.
Luke 1:10 And the whole multitude of the people was praying outside at the hour of incense.
Luke 1:11 Then an angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right side of the altar of incense.
Luke 1:12 And when Zacharias saw him, he was troubled, and fear fell upon him.
Luke 1:13 But the angel said to him, “Do not be afraid, Zacharias, for your prayer is heard; and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you shall call his name John.
Luke 1:14 And you will have joy and gladness, and many will rejoice at his birth.
Luke 1:15 For he will be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink. He will also be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother’s womb.
Luke 1:16 And he will turn many of the children of Israel to the Lord their God.
Luke 1:17 He will also go before Him in the spirit and power of Elijah, ‘to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children,’ and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just, to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.”
Luke 1:18 And Zacharias said to the angel, “How shall I know this? For I am an old man, and my wife is well advanced in years.”
Luke 1:19 And the angel answered and said to him, “I am Gabriel, who stands in the presence of God, and was sent to speak to you and bring you (this good news) these glad tidings.
Luke 1:20 But behold, you will be mute and not able to speak until the day these things take place, because you did not believe my words which will be fulfilled in their own time.”
Luke 1:21 And the people waited for Zacharias, and marveled that he lingered so long in the temple.
Luke 1:22 But when he came out, he could not speak to them; and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple, for he beckoned to them and remained speechless.
Luke 1:23 So it was, as soon as the days of his service were completed, that he departed to his own house.
  • His own house was in the “hill” country.
Luke 1:24 Now after those days his wife Elizabeth conceived; and she hid herself five months, saying,
Luke 1:25 “Thus the Lord has dealt with me, in the days when He looked on me, to take away my reproach among people.”

Christ’s Birth Announced to Mary

Luke 1:26 Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth,
  • NOTE: It’s reasonable to interpret the sixth month as the month following the five months of “hiding”, which would make it the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy. But that’s not what the literal translation says; that’s (rather) just “the sixth month”. One translation is a literal Jewish month, another translation is interpretative of Elizabeth’s pregnancy. https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/questions/8575/was-it-in-elizabeths-sixth-month-of-pregnancy-or-just-in-the-sixth-month
  • However, the sixth Hebrew month of Elul would not fit with Abijah’s eighth division, again, assuming the eighth division finishes at the end of Tammuz.
  • FACT: Mary conceived in the 6th month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy.
  • Therefore; Mary conceived in the 6th month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy (Tevet) because of Luke 1:36:
    • Luke 1:36 Now indeed, Elizabeth your relative has also conceived a son in her old age; and this is now the sixth month for her who was called barren.
  • The 6th month for Elizabeth’s pregnancy is Tevet. If Mary conceived Kislev the 24th, then that would be the date the Foundation Stone was laid.
  • Isaiah 28:16 A Cornerstone in Zion – Therefore thus says the Lord God: “Behold, I lay in Zion a stone for a foundation, A tried stone, a precious cornerstone, a sure foundation; Whoever believes will not act hastily.
  • Ephesians 2:20 having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the chief cornerstone,
Luke 1:27 to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin’s name was Mary.
Luke 1:28 And having come in, the angel said to her, “Rejoice, highly favored one, the Lord is with you; blessed are you among women!”
Luke 1:29 But when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and considered what manner of greeting this was.
Luke 1:30 Then the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God.
Luke 1:31 And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bring forth a Son, and shall call His name Jesus.
Luke 1:32 He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Highest; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David.
Luke 1:33 And He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of His kingdom there will be no end.”
Luke 1:34 Then Mary said to the angel, “How can this be, since I (am a virgin) do not know a man?”
Luke 1:35 And the angel answered and said to her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Highest will overshadow you; therefore, also, that Holy One who is to be born will be called the Son of God.
  • The leaders of the Jews did not accept Jesus’ virgin birth. Instead, they inferred He was the son of fornication.
  • This is the unforgivable sin. It is blasphemy of the Holy Spirit who overshadowed Mary.
  • Everyone has their own choice on what they chose to believe. Either Mary was a virgin and Jesus was born of the Holy Spirit or Jesus was the son of fornication.
  • What do you believe? This is what Jesus says of those who blasphemy the Holy Spirit:
    • Matthew 12:31 – The Unpardonable Sin – “Therefore I say to you, every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven men, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven men. 32 Anyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man, it will be forgiven him; but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit, it will not be forgiven him, either in this age or in the age to come.
Luke 1:36 Now indeed, Elizabeth your relative has also conceived a son in her old age; and this is now the sixth month for her who was called barren.
  • The sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy.
Luke 1:37 For with God nothing will be impossible.”
Luke 1:38 Then Mary said, “Behold the maidservant of the Lord! Let it be to me according to your word.” And the angel departed from her.

Mary Visits Elizabeth

Luke 1:39 Now Mary arose in those days and went into the hill country with haste, to a city of Judah,
Luke 1:40 and entered the house of Zacharias and greeted Elizabeth.
Luke 1:41 And it happened, when Elizabeth heard the greeting of Mary, that the babe leaped in her womb; and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit.
Luke 1:42 Then she spoke out with a loud voice and said, “Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb!
Luke 1:43 But why is this granted to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?
Luke 1:44 For indeed, as soon as the voice of your greeting sounded in my ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy.
Luke 1:45 Blessed is she who believed that there will be a fulfillment of those things which were told her from the Lord.”

The Song of Mary

Luke 1:46 And Mary said: “My soul (declares the greatness of) magnifies the Lord,
Luke 1:47 And my spirit has rejoiced in God my Savior.
Luke 1:48 For He has regarded the lowly state of His maidservant;
For behold, henceforth all generations will call me blessed.
Luke 1:49 For He who is mighty has done great things for me,
And holy is His name.
Luke 1:50 And His mercy is on those who fear Him
From generation to generation.
Luke 1:51 He has shown strength with His arm;
He has scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts.
Luke 1:52 He has put down the mighty from their thrones,
And exalted the lowly.
Luke 1:53 He has filled the hungry with good things,
And the rich He has sent away empty.
Luke 1:54 He has helped His servant Israel,
In remembrance of His mercy,
Luke 1:55 As He spoke to our fathers,
To Abraham and to his seed forever.”
Luke 1:56 And Mary remained with her about three months, and returned to her house.
  • Mary did not remain for the birth or the circumcision.

Birth of John the Baptist

Luke 1:57 Now Elizabeth’s full time came for her to be delivered, and she brought forth a son.
Luke 1:58 When her neighbors and relatives heard how the Lord had shown great mercy to her, they rejoiced with her.

Circumcision of John the Baptist

Luke 1:59 So it was, on the eighth day, that they came to circumcise the child; and they would have called him by the name of his father, Zacharias.
Luke 1:60 His mother (Elizabeth) answered and said, “No; he shall be called John.”
Luke 1:61 But they said to her, “There is no one among your relatives who is called by this name.”
Luke 1:62 So they made signs to his father—what he would have him called.
Luke 1:63 And he asked for a writing tablet, and wrote, saying, “His name is John.” So they all marveled.
Luke 1:64 Immediately his mouth was opened and his tongue loosed, and he spoke, praising God.
Luke 1:65 Then fear came on all who dwelt around them; and all these sayings were discussed throughout all the hill country of Judea.
Luke 1:66 And all those who heard them kept them in their hearts, saying, “What kind of child will this be?” And the hand of the Lord was with him.

Zacharias’ Prophecy

Luke 1:67 Now his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Spirit, and prophesied, saying:
Luke 1:68 “Blessed is the Lord God of Israel,
For He has visited and redeemed His people,
Luke 1:69 And has raised up a horn of salvation for us
In the house of His servant David,
Luke 1:70 As He spoke by the mouth of His holy prophets,
Who have been since the world began,
Luke 1:71 That we should be saved from our enemies
And from the hand of all who hate us,
Luke 1:72 To perform the mercy promised to our fathers
And to remember His holy covenant,
Luke 1:73 The oath which He swore to our father Abraham:
Luke 1:74 To grant us that we,
Being delivered from the hand of our enemies,
Might serve Him without fear,
Luke 1:75 In holiness and righteousness before Him all the days of our life.
Luke 1:76 “And you, child, will be called the prophet of the Highest;
For you will go before the face of the Lord to prepare His ways,
Luke 1:77 To give knowledge of salvation to His people
By the remission of their sins,
  • Jesus is the Greek version of the Hebrew name Yeshua. Both mean “salvation”.
Luke 1:78 Through the tender mercy of our God,
With which the Dayspring (Messiah) from on high has visited us;
  • Dayspring (Lit. Dawn; the Messiah)
  • The word for Messiah is also the Christ.
Luke 1:79 To give light to those who sit in darkness and the shadow of death,
To guide our feet into the way of peace.”
Luke 1:80 So the child (John) grew and became strong in spirit, and was in the deserts till the day of his manifestation to Israel.
  • The book of Luke gives the reader the best account of the timing of Jesus’ birth and ministry.
  • These are the historical dates at present, beginning with the rule of Tiberius and working backwards:
    • Luke 3:1 in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar (he reigned from 14 AD to 37 AD and the fifteenth year is 29 AD)
    • Luke 3:23 Now Jesus Himself began His ministry at about thirty years of age dating his birth at 1 AD.
  • Jesus crucifixion week showing Hebrew and Roman dates:
  • [To verify 31 AD: See http://www.cgsf.org/dbeattie/calendar/?roman=31. Type in the AD Roman Year “31” to show both the Hebrew calendar with the Jewish Feasts and the Roman calendar:]
  • (PS: type in any other year and the Jewish Feasts will not match scripture)

Conclusion: Jesus began his ministry in (unknown month) 29 AD and was crucified April 25, 31 AD. The unknown month of Jesus’ ministry would be between June to September. These are the dry months for John to be baptizing in the Jordan.

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