Words in italic type have been added for clarity. They are not found in the original Hebrew or Aramaic.
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Betrayal and Arrest in Gethsemane
John 18:1 When Jesus had spoken these words, He went out with His disciples over the Brook Kidron, where there was a garden, which He and His disciples entered.
John 18:2 And Judas, who betrayed Him, also knew the place; for Jesus often met there with His disciples.
John 18:3 Then Judas, having received a detachment of troops, and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, came there with lanterns, torches, and weapons.
- THE BETRAYAL:
- Acts 1:16 “Men and brethren, this Scripture had to be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who became a guide to those who arrested Jesus;
- Matthew 26:14 [Judas Agrees to Betray Jesus] Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests
- Luke 22:48 But Jesus said to him, “Judas, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?”
John 18:4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that would come upon Him, went forward and said to them, “Whom are you seeking?”
John 18:5 They answered Him, “Jesus of Nazareth (Literally: the Nazarene)
Jesus said to them, “I AM.” And Judas, who betrayed Him, also stood with them.
John 18:6 Now when He said to them, “I AM,” they drew back and fell to the ground.
John 18:7 Then He asked them again, “Whom are you seeking?”
And they said, “Jesus of Nazareth.”
John 18:8 Jesus answered, “I have told you that I AM. Therefore, if you seek Me, let these go their way,”
- Throughout dangerous times Jesus protected His disciples.
John 18:9 that the saying might be fulfilled which He spoke, “Of those whom You gave Me I have lost none.”
John 18:10 Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest’s servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant’s name was Malchus.
NOTE: Malchus means “my king” in Hebrew, from the root melek, meaning “king”.
- Peter wanted to fight for Jesus but Jesus stopped him. Peter wanted to use his own power but Jesus relied on the power and direction of the Father. When Peter must submit, he then resorts to hiding.
- Malchus “my king” is healed by “The King”.
Luke 22:51 But Jesus answered and said, “Permit even this.” And He touched his ear and healed him.
- This is Jesus’ last miracle before His death.
- If Jesus had not healed him, he would no longer be allowed to serve in the temple:
- Lev 21:17-23 “Speak to Aaron, saying: ‘No man of your descendants in succeeding generations, who has any defect, may approach to offer the bread of his God. 18 For any man who has a defect shall not approach: a man blind or lame, who has a marred face or any limb too long, 19 a man who has a broken foot or broken hand, 20 or is a hunchback or a dwarf, or a man who has a defect in his eye, or eczema or scab, or is a eunuch. 21 No man of the descendants of Aaron the priest, who has a defect, shall come near to offer the offerings made by fire to the Lord. He has a defect; he shall not come near to offer the bread of his God. 22 He may eat the bread of his God, both the most holy and the holy; 23 only he shall not go near the veil or approach the altar, because he has a defect, lest he profane My sanctuaries; for I the Lord sanctify them.’”
John 18:11 So Jesus said to Peter, “Put your sword into the sheath. Shall I not drink the cup which My Father has given Me?”
- Jesus is speaking of the cup of suffering from the last supper:
- Luke 22:20 Likewise He also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is shed for you.
- Then they all forsook Him and fled:
- Now a certain young man followed Him, having a linen cloth thrown around his naked body. And the young men laid hold of him, 52 and he left the linen cloth and fled from them naked. Mark 15:50-51
- “A certain young man” is the Holy Spirit wrapped in a cloth of righteousness. (An unnamed man in scripture is associated with the Holy Spirit.) Linen is the cloth of righteousness. Being naked means being innocent and yet vulnerable. The Holy Spirit was accosted at the same time Jesus was arrested. The Spirit which landed on Jesus like a dove while He was being baptized is now leaving Him.
Before the High Priest
John 18:12 Then the detachment of troops and the captain and the officers of the Jews arrested Jesus and bound Him.
John 18:13 And they led Him away to Annas first, for he was the father-in-law of Caiaphas who was high priest that year.
- Annas had more sway and authority even though his son-in-law had the title of High Priest.
John 18:14 Now it was Caiaphas who advised the Jews that it was expedient (advantageous) that one man should die for the people.
- Caiaphas spoke prophetically. It was the Father’s will that Jesus would die for the nation.
Peter Denies Jesus
John 18:15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another (the other) disciple (ie: John). Now that disciple was known to the high priest, and (John) went with Jesus into the courtyard of the high priest.
- This was a dangerous decision. To be associated with Jesus was to risk one’s own life and be crucified with Him.
John 18:16 But Peter stood at the door outside. Then the other disciple (John), who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to her who kept the door, and brought Peter in.
- How would John be known to the high priest? He and the disciple James were brothers called “the sons of thunder”. John also was the only disciple who stood at the bottom of the cross when Jesus was crucified.
- Since John alone gives the name of the servant, we may conclude that John was the disciple known to the high priest (John 18:15).
John 18:17 Then the servant girl who kept the door said to Peter, “You are not also one of this Man’s disciples, are you?”
- He said, “I am not.”
- Jesus replied “I AM”. But Peter replied “I am not”.
John 18:18 Now the servants and officers who had made a fire of coals stood there, for it was cold, and they warmed themselves. And Peter stood with them and warmed himself.
Jesus Questioned by the High Priest
John 18:19 The high priest then asked Jesus about His disciples and His doctrine.
John 18:20 Jesus answered him, “I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues and in the temple, where the Jews always meet (all the Jews meet), and in secret I have said nothing.
John 18:21 Why do you ask Me? Ask those who have heard Me what I said to them. Indeed they know what I said.”
John 18:22 And when He had said these things, one of the officers who stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand (Lit. gave Jesus a slap), saying, “Do You answer the high priest like that?”
John 18:23 Jesus answered him, “If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil; but if well, why do you strike Me?”
John 18:24 Then Annas sent Him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.
Peter Denies Twice More
John 18:25 Now Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. Therefore they said to him, “You are not also one of His disciples, are you?”
He denied it and said, “I am not!”
John 18:26 One of the servants of the high priest, a relative of him whose ear Peter cut off (Malchus), said, “Did I not see you in the garden with Him?”
- Another servant of the high priest was a relative of Malchus.
John 18:27 Peter then denied again; and immediately a rooster crowed.
- In the Temple precinct, there was a Temple crier who called out to begin the service. Everywhere else, the time would be determined by an actual rooster crowing. It was both the call of a man and the call of the rooster.
In Pilate’s Court
John 18:28 Then they led Jesus from Caiaphas to the Praetorium, and it was early morning. But they themselves did not go into the (The governor’s headquarters) Praetorium, lest they should be defiled, but that they might eat the Passover.
- Little did they know that God’s Passover Lamb was in the Praetorium and that they were defiled.
John 18:29 Pilate then went out to them and said, “What accusation do you bring against this Man?”
John 18:30 They answered and said to him, “If He were not (a criminal) an evildoer, we would not have delivered Him up to you.”
John 18:31 Then Pilate said to them, “You take Him and judge Him according to your law.”
Therefore the Jews said to him, “It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death,”
John 18:32 that the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled which He spoke, signifying by what death He would die.
John 18:33 Then Pilate entered the [The governor’s headquarters] Praetorium again, called Jesus, and said to Him, “Are You the King of the Jews?”
John 18:34 Jesus answered him, “Are you speaking for yourself about this, or did others tell you this concerning Me?”
John 18:35 Pilate answered, “Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered You to me. What have You done?”
John 18:36 Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, My servants would fight, so that I should not be delivered to the Jews; but now My kingdom is not from here.”
John 18:37 Pilate therefore said to Him, “Are You a king then?”
Jesus answered, “You say rightly that I am a king. For this cause I was born, and for this cause I have come into the world, that I should bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice.”
John 18:38 Pilate said to Him, “What is truth?” And when he had said this, he went out again to the Jews, and said to them, “I find no fault in Him at all.
- “What is Truth?” Pilate was looking at the Truth.
- Jesus said to him (Thomas), “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me. John 14:6
Taking the Place of Barabbas