Words in italic type have been added for clarity. They are not found in the original Hebrew or Aramaic.
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- Jesus went to Bethany and raised Lazarus from the dead creating anger in the Jewish leaders who then plotted to kill Jesus as well as Lazarus. (Didn’t they learn anything? How do you keep a dead man down?)
Bethany was a small town located just over the top of Mount Olives. The road went down toward the Eastern Gate into Jerusalem (considered a Sabbath Day’s journey of about two miles). All the disciples were from Galilee except Judas who came from Jerusalem (and maybe Bethany).
Because of the danger after Lazarus’ resurrection; Jesus and His disciples withdrew and stayed in a city called Ephraim located in the wilderness, staying there until Passover neared; then they returned to Bethany six days before Passover Friday April 20, 31 AD (According to the Roman calendar). (According to the Jewish calendar it was Nissan 9 when they entered Bethany).
The next day, Nisan 10, was significant. It was Saturday, a Sabbath and it was the day the Priests were to select a Passover lamb according to Exodus 12:
1 Now the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, 2 “This month shall be your beginning of months; it shall be the first month (Nisan) of the year to you. 3 Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying: ‘On the tenth of this month (Nisan 10) every man shall take for himself a lamb, according to the house of his father, a lamb for a household. … 5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year… 6 Now you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month (Nisan 14). Then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at twilight… It is the Lord’s Passover. 12 ‘For I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the Lord. 13 Now the blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you; and the plague shall not be on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.
It was also the day Jesus made His triumphal entry through the Eastern Gate into Jerusalem and into the temple being hailed as King by the masses. John the baptizer had declared Jesus was the Lamb of God who would take away the sins of the world. The priests selected their Passover lamb and God had selected His Passover Lamb.
- For three days the priests inspected the lamb for spot or blemish, from Nisan 10 until Nisan 14 when the lamb was slaughtered.
- For three days Jesus taught in the temple, also inspected for spot or blemish in His teachings.
It was in the middle of those three days that Jesus and His disciples ate at Simon the Leper’s house, Monday, April 23, 31 AD (Nissan 12). It was also two days before Passover.
Jesus made this astonishing declaration (but no one was listening):
“You know that after two days is the Passover, and the Son of Man will be delivered up to be crucified.” (Matt 26:2)
Simon, a Pharisee, who evidently had been healed of his leprosy by Jesus, was upset at the presence of Mary, a prostitute, being in his house. His focus seemed to have silenced Jesus’ words.
Jesus said to Simon, “Do you see this woman? I entered your house; you gave Me no water for My feet, but she has washed My feet with her tears and wiped them with the hair of her head. 45 You gave Me no kiss, but this woman has not ceased to kiss My feet since the time I came in. 46 You did not anoint My head with oil, but this woman has anointed My feet with fragrant oil. 47 Therefore I say to you, her sins, which are many, are forgiven, for she loved much. But to whom little is forgiven, the same loves little.”
Jesus told Simon that Mary was better than him because she loved much but Simon loved little. How did Simon take the statement that Mary, a prostitute is better than he, a Pharisee?
It was a full house. The disciples were there with Jesus, Lazarus, Mary, and Martha, as well as others.
Jesus had just previously told them that He would be delivered up to be crucified (Matt 26:2) – but they just didn’t “get it” — but Mary did. She cried as she anointed Jesus, preparing Him for His burial.
Satan must have been present also in this full house, invisible, instigating and watching.
Judas was upset that Mary was wasting her costly perfume on Jesus instead of selling it and giving the money to the poor and he also is reprimanded by Jesus.
- But Jesus said, “Let her alone. Why do you trouble her? She has done a good work for Me. 7 For you have the poor with you always, and whenever you wish you may do them good; but Me you do not have always. 8 She has done what she could. She has come beforehand to anoint My body for burial. 9 Assuredly, I say to you, wherever this gospel is preached in the whole world, what this woman has done will also be told as a memorial to her.” Mark 14:6-9
Judas is distinguished from others named Judas as “Judas, the son of Simon”. Is this Simon the same Simon as Judas’ father?
No one knows what goes on in the heart of a man when he decides to betray a friend. Perhaps Judas was offended at Jesus’ words to his father as well as himself when he chose to meet with the Pharisees and agrees to betray Jesus for thirty pieces of silver.
- Then I (Judas) said to them, “If it is agreeable to you (the Pharisees), give me my wages; and if not, refrain.” So they weighed out for my (Judas’) wages thirty pieces of silver. Zechariah 11:12
Thirty pieces of silver is the price to be paid for a servant who is pierced by a bull. Jesus calls Himself a servant. The bulls are the leaders of the Jews.
- Many bulls (leaders) have surrounded Me; Strong bulls of Bashan have encircled Me.
(Bashan-a place known for its giants) Psalm 22:12
All prophesied by the prophets.
After eating at Simon the lepers’ house, the next day on Tuesday, April 24, 31 AD the disciples meet for the last supper in the upper room. Jesus knows what Judas did and confronts him. Judas takes the bread (Jesus’ body) but he leaves before he partakes of the cup (Jesus’ blood given for the forgiveness of sins) and Judas goes into the night, into the darkness to fulfill his nefarious purpose to betray his friend with a kiss.
Above: the first calendar is looked at through the eyes of a Roman Calendar, the second calendar illustrates the Jewish days by evenings and mornings overlapping with the Roman days.
Betrayal and Arrest in Gethsemane
John 18:1 When Jesus had spoken these words, He went out with His disciples over the Brook Kidron, where there was a garden, which He and His disciples entered.
John 18:2 And Judas, who betrayed Him, also knew the place; for Jesus often met there with His disciples.
John 18:3 Then Judas, having received a detachment of troops, and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, came there with lanterns, torches, and weapons.
- THE BETRAYAL:
- Acts 1:16 “Men and brethren, this Scripture had to be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who became a guide to those who arrested Jesus;
- Matthew 26:14 [Judas Agrees to Betray Jesus] Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests
- Luke 22:48 But Jesus said to him, “Judas, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?”
John 18:4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that would come upon Him, went forward and said to them, “Whom are you seeking?”
John 18:5 They answered Him, “Jesus of Nazareth (Literally: the Nazarene)
Jesus said to them, “I AM.” And Judas, who betrayed Him, also stood with them.
John 18:6 Now when He said to them, “I AM,” they drew back and fell to the ground.
John 18:7 Then He asked them again, “Whom are you seeking?”
And they said, “Jesus of Nazareth.”
John 18:8 Jesus answered, “I have told you that I AM. Therefore, if you seek Me, let these go their way,”
- Throughout dangerous times Jesus protected His disciples.
John 18:9 that the saying might be fulfilled which He spoke, “Of those whom You gave Me I have lost none.”
John 18:10 Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest’s servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant’s name was Malchus.
Luke 22:51 But Jesus answered and said, “Permit even this.” And He touched his ear and healed him.
John 18:11 So Jesus said to Peter, “Put your sword into the sheath. Shall I not drink the cup which My Father has given Me?”
- Jesus is speaking of the cup of suffering from the last supper:
- Luke 22:20 Likewise He also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is shed for you.
Before the High Priest
John 18:12 Then the detachment of troops and the captain and the officers of the Jews arrested Jesus and bound Him.
John 18:13 And they led Him away to Annas first, for he was the father-in-law of Caiaphas who was high priest that year.
- Annas had more sway and authority even though his son-in-law had the title of High Priest.
John 18:14 Now it was Caiaphas who advised the Jews that it was expedient (advantageous) that one man should die for the people.
- Caiaphas spoke prophetically. It was the Father’s will that Jesus would die for the nation.
Peter Denies Jesus
John 18:15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another (the other) disciple (ie: John). Now that disciple was known to the high priest, and (John) went with Jesus into the courtyard of the high priest.
- This was a dangerous decision. To be associated with Jesus was to risk one’s own life and be crucified with Him.
John 18:16 But Peter stood at the door outside. Then the other disciple (John), who was known to the high priest, went out and spoke to her who kept the door, and brought Peter in.
- How would John be known to the high priest? He and the disciple James were brothers called “the sons of thunder”. John also was the only disciple who stood at the bottom of the cross when Jesus was crucified.
John 18:17 Then the servant girl who kept the door said to Peter, “You are not also one of this Man’s disciples, are you?”
- He said, “I am not.”
- Jesus replied “I AM”. But Peter replied “I am not”.
John 18:18 Now the servants and officers who had made a fire of coals stood there, for it was cold, and they warmed themselves. And Peter stood with them and warmed himself.
Jesus Questioned by the High Priest
John 18:19 The high priest then asked Jesus about His disciples and His doctrine.
John 18:20 Jesus answered him, “I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues and in the temple, where the Jews always meet (all the Jews meet), and in secret I have said nothing.
John 18:21 Why do you ask Me? Ask those who have heard Me what I said to them. Indeed they know what I said.”
John 18:22 And when He had said these things, one of the officers who stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand (Lit. gave Jesus a slap), saying, “Do You answer the high priest like that?”
John 18:23 Jesus answered him, “If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil; but if well, why do you strike Me?”
John 18:24 Then Annas sent Him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.
- Annas sends Jesus to his son-in-law.
Peter Denies Twice More
John 18:25 Now Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. Therefore they said to him, “You are not also one of His disciples, are you?”
He denied it and said, “I am not!”
John 18:26 One of the servants of the high priest, a relative of him whose ear Peter cut off (Malchus), said, “Did I not see you in the garden with Him?”
John 18:27 Peter then denied again; and immediately a rooster crowed.
In Pilate’s Court
John 18:28 Then they led Jesus from Caiaphas to the Praetorium, and it was early morning. But they themselves did not go into the (The governor’s headquarters) Praetorium, lest they should be defiled, but that they might eat the Passover.
John 18:29 Pilate then went out to them and said, “What accusation do you bring against this Man?”
John 18:30 They answered and said to him, “If He were not (a criminal) an evildoer, we would not have delivered Him up to you.”
John 18:31 Then Pilate said to them, “You take Him and judge Him according to your law.”
Therefore the Jews said to him, “It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death,”
John 18:32 that the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled which He spoke, signifying by what death He would die.
John 18:33 Then Pilate entered the (The governor’s headquarters) Praetorium again, called Jesus, and said to Him, “Are You the King of the Jews?”
John 18:34 Jesus answered him, “Are you speaking for yourself about this, or did others tell you this concerning Me?”
John 18:35 Pilate answered, “Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered You to me. What have You done?”
John 18:36 Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, My servants would fight, so that I should not be delivered to the Jews; but now My kingdom is not from here.”
John 18:37 Pilate therefore said to Him, “Are You a king then?”
Jesus answered, “You say rightly that I am a king. For this cause I was born, and for this cause I have come into the world, that I should bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice.”
John 18:38 Pilate said to Him, “What is truth?” And when he had said this, he went out again to the Jews, and said to them, “I find no fault in Him at all.
Taking the Place of Barabbas
John 18:39 “But you have a custom that I should release someone to you at the Passover. Do you therefore want me to release to you the King of the Jews?”
John 18:40 Then they all cried again, saying, “Not this Man, but Barabbas!” Now Barabbas was a robber.
- Barabbas’ first name was “Jesus”.