BIBLE: Exodus Chapter 12 – Headline “A Nation Passed-Over”

Words in italic type have been added for clarity. They are not found in the original Greek.

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Exodus 12

The Passover Instituted

Exodus 12:1 Now the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying

Exodus 12:2 “This month shall be your beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you (Jewish month of Nisan).
Exodus 12:3 Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying: ‘On the tenth of this month every man shall take for himself a lamb, according to the house of his father, a lamb for a household.
Exodus 12:44 And if the household is too small for the lamb, let him and his neighbor next to his house take it according to the number of the persons; according to each man’s need you shall make your count for the lamb.
Exodus 12:5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year. You may take it from the sheep or from the goats.

@ Prophecy Alert: Heb 9:14; 1 Pet 1:19 (A Lamb without blemish) (Old Testament prophecy fulfilled by Jesus)

Exodus 12:6 Now you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month. Then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at twilight.

The lamb was selected on the 10th of the month and killed on the 14th day of the month; therefore they had 3 days to inspect the lamb for a spot or a blemish.

Note: Compare the timing of the Exodus Passover in 1446 BC with the timing of God’s Passover Lamb in 31 BC.

  • John 12:1 [The Anointing at Bethany] Then, six days before the Passover, Jesus came to Bethany, where Lazarus was who had been dead, whom He had raised from the dead.
  • The Passover was commemorated on the 14th day of the first month. Therefore six days before the 14th is the 8th.
  • Between the time Jesus rode into Bethany and the Passover, Jesus was anointed, betrayed, and rode into Jerusalem declaring Himself as King of the Jews. He and His teachings were inspected by the chief priests, the Pharisees, and the elders for 3 days for a blemish in his identity as the sinless Lamb of God. Following, was the last supper, His arrest, and His crucifixion on the cross on the 14th. He rose on the same day as the Jewish Feast of First Fruits.
  • In both cases, no bones of the lamb/Lamb were broken.

A Comparison Chart of Passover: The Exodus with the Annual Passover Feast, and Jesus as the Passover Lamb ▼ (ignore designated Notes: used in the gospels only)

Exodus 12:7 And they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and on the lintel of the houses where they eat it.

► Extrapolated meanings: “The House

  • Jesus’ death built “The house of God”, that is, the believers who become the children of God. Royalty is called “The house of (ie Windsor)” etc. Jesus is royalty and so are His children.

Extrapolated meanings: The Blood

  • A wipe on the two doorposts and the lintel form the sign of a cross with the blood of the lamb (Lamb) applied to it.
  • “Blood” in Hebrew is “dam”. It means both red blood and red wine. At the last supper if Jesus spoke in Hebrew “This is my ‘dam’” the disciples would not have understood until after the crucifixion He was speaking of His blood and not His wine.
  • The Chinese word for blood is a picture of a nail used for piercing. Below the nail is an altar and blood flowing at the side of the altar.
  • The life is in the blood: Leviticus 17:11 For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that makes atonement for the soul.’

Extrapolated meanings of The Doorposts and Lintel

  • The Doorposts and Lintel are an entry way and as such, they are the entry way into a new life through the blood of the Lamb.
  • Wood is symbolic of men and Jesus was “the Son of Man”.
    See: Biblical Materials: Wood and its Symbolism
    • Revelation 11:4 These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands standing before the God of the earth.
    • Jude 1:12 [Apostates Depraved and Doomed] These are spots in your love feasts, while they feast with you without fear, serving only themselves. They are clouds without water, carried about by the winds; late autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, pulled up by the roots;
    • Luke 3:9 And even now the ax is laid to the root of the trees. Therefore every tree which does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire.”
    • Mark 8:24 And he looked up and said, “I see men like trees, walking.”
    • Zechariah 4:11, 14 Then I answered and said to him, “What are these two olive trees—at the right of the lampstand and at its left?” 14 So he said, “These are the two anointed ones, who stand beside the Lord of the whole earth.”
    • Ezekiel 15:6 “Therefore thus says the Lord God: ‘Like the wood of the vine among the trees of the forest, which I have given to the fire for fuel, so I will give up the inhabitants of Jerusalem;
    • Ezekiel 31:18 ‘To which of the trees in Eden will you then be likened in glory and greatness? Yet you shall be brought down with the trees of Eden to the depths of the earth; you shall lie in the midst of the uncircumcised, with those slain by the sword. This is Pharaoh and all his multitude,’ says the Lord God.”
    • Isaiah 7:2 And it was told to the house of David, saying, “Syria’s forces are deployed in Ephraim.” So his heart and the heart of his people were moved as the trees of the woods are moved with the wind.
    • Isaiah 61:3 To console those who mourn in Zion, To give them beauty for ashes, The oil of joy for mourning, The garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness; That they may be called trees of righteousness, The planting of the Lord, that He may be glorified.”
    • Song of Solomon 2:3 [The Shulamite] Like an apple tree among the trees of the woods, So is my beloved among the sons. I sat down in his shade with great delight, And his fruit was sweet to my taste.
    • Judges 9:8 [The Parable of the Trees] “The trees once went forth to anoint a king over them. And they said to the olive tree, ‘Reign over us!’
    • 1 Chronicles 16:33 Then the trees of the woods shall rejoice before the Lord, For He is coming to judge the earth.
Exodus 12:8 Then they shall eat the flesh on that night; roasted in fire, with unleavened bread and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.
Exodus 12:9 Do not eat it raw, nor boiled at all with water, but roasted in fire (symbolic of judgement)—its head with its legs and its entrails (the intestines or internal organs).

Extrapolated meanings of Boiled in water

  • Satan is called a “sea monster” or “Leviathan” who lives in a “sea of people”. In Job chapter 41 he causes the sea of people to “boil”, creating a society that stews and storms.
 Exodus 12:10 You shall let none of it remain until morning, and what remains of it until morning you shall burn with fire.
  • They had to eat all of it, even the intestines and internal organs.
Exodus 12:11 And thus you shall eat it: with a belt on your waist, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. So you shall eat it in haste. It is the Lord’s Passover.
Exodus 12:12 ‘For I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the Lord.

The following Egyptian “gods” failed to protect Egypt from complete devastation:

Egyptian godsRealmImage
Amon-Ra or ReKing of the gods: King of the “worthless” gods. The sun god. The plague of darkness.Human w/falcon head
ApisFertility god: death of Pharaoh’s first born and only son and no further children.Bull
AtumSun-god: plague of darknessSerpent
Bast (Bubastis)Love goddess. Cat
ErmutetCrop goddess: the plague of the locusts. 
GebEarth god: livestock pestilenceHuman
HapiNile river god: waters turned to blood. Frogs.Crocodile
HathorDesert goddess: Hebrews evaded the Pharaoh in the wilderness. Death of first born animals. Illustrated with a cow head.Cow head
HeqtGoddess of birth: No further children from the Pharaoh and his wife or concubines. She is illustrated as having a frog head.Frog
HorusSky god: the plague of hail.Hawk and falcon
ImhotepMedicine god: the plague of boils, lice, and flies (gnats). 
IsisProtector of crops: the plague of the locusts.Human
KhnumGuardian of Nile river: the waters were turned to blood.Human w/ram’s head
MeskhenetAssociated with childbirth. Death of all firstborn. 
MinGod of fertility: death of all the first born. 
NepriGrain god: the plague of the locusts 
NutGoddess of sky. the plague of hail. 
OsirisGod of the underworld 
PtuhGod of creationHuman
RenenutetPharaoh’s guardian. Pharaoh drowned in the sea.Cobra
SelketGuardian of life. Pharaoh and all the nobles, priests, and army were drowned in the sea.Scorpion
SerapisGod of healing. Plague of flies, lice, and boils.Serpent
SethGod who protects crops. Plague of locusts. 
ShuGod of wind: When it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts. Exodus 15:10 You blew with Your wind, The sea covered them; They (the Egyptians) sank like lead in the mighty waters. 
TauretAnother Nile goddess: Water turned to blood.Hippopotamus
TemGod of sunset: plague of darkness 
ThermuthisFertility and crop goddess: death of firstborn, plague of locusts.Serpent
Thoth (Tehuti)God of medical learning: the plague of boilsIbis or baboon
Worthless “gods” of Egypt who were no gods at all. The plagues demonstrated their “worthlessness”. Only the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob is the God and creator of all mankind, the only “Living” God, and the only God to be praised.

After the plagues and after the crossing of the Red Sea, God will have reduced the so-called power of the Egyptian gods to nothing.

When the Hebrews leave Egypt, they leave Egypt destitute. Their crops are destroyed. Their pharaoh is dead. Their livestock is sick. Their gold and silver have been plundered. All their nobles are dead, every priest. Their army is wiped out. Every first born is dead of man and animal. This is not the kingdom that Joseph made wealthy.

Click Here To See: Topic: Pharaoh of the Red Sea

 Exodus 12:13 Now the blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you; and the plague shall not be on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.

@ Prophecy Alert: Rom 5:8 (The blood of the Lamb saves from wrath) (Old Testament prophecy fulfilled by Jesus)

@ Personal Application: If you apply the blood of Jesus to the doorpost of your future, the plague of spiritual death will pass over you.

Exodus 12:14 ‘So this day shall be to you a memorial; and you shall keep it as a feast to the Lord throughout your generations. You shall keep it as a feast by an everlasting ordinance.

An everlasting ordinance is something never to be forgotten, not in this life nor in the next.

Exodus 12:15 Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. On the first day you shall remove leaven from your houses. For whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that person shall be cut off from Israel.

Leaven is symbolic of sin, being that it “puffs up bread” the same way sin puffs up the human soul into a loaf of “pride”.

The Lamb of God is “sin-less”.

The number Seven is symbolic of perfection and completion.
See: Topic: Number Symbolism

Exodus 12:16 On the first day there shall be a holy convocation (a sabbath), and on the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation (a sabbath) for you. No manner of work shall be done on them; but that which everyone must eat—that only may be prepared by you.
Exodus 12:17 So you shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for on this same day I will have brought your armies (multitudes) out of the land of Egypt. Therefore you shall observe this day throughout your generations as an everlasting ordinance.
  • On the first day of unleavened bread God brought the Hebrews out of Egypt. This is the day of the Passover.
Exodus 12:18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day of the month at evening.

The first month is Nisan, from the 14th to the 20th is seven days, stopping at the 21st.

Exodus 12:19 For seven days no leaven shall be found in your houses, since whoever eats what is leavened, that same person shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a stranger or a native of the land.

To refuse eating unleavened bread is to refuse removing sin from one’s life. Therefore; being cut off from the congregation is to be cut out of God’s kingdom.

Exodus 12:20 You shall eat nothing leavened; in all your dwellings you shall eat unleavened bread.’ ”
Exodus 12:21 Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Pick out and take lambs for yourselves according to your families, and kill the Passover lamb.

@Prophecy Alert: 1 Cor 5:7 (Jesus is our Passover) (Old Testament prophecy fulfilled by Jesus)

Exodus 12:22 And you shall take a bunch of hyssop, dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood that is in the basin. And none of you shall go out of the door of his house until morning.

►Extrapolated meanings for “Hyssop”.

  • Psalm 51:7 Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; Wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.
  • Due to its purported properties as an antiseptic, cough reliever, and expectorant, Hyssop has been used in traditional herbal medicine.
  • Hyssop is used for digestive and intestinal problems including liver and gallbladder conditions, intestinal pain, intestinal gas, colic, and loss of appetite. It is also used for respiratory problems including coughs, the common cold, respiratory infections, sore throat, and asthma.
  • Jesus refused sour wine on the cross until it was dipped in hyssop.
    • John 19:28 After this, Jesus, knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said, “I thirst!” 29 Now a vessel full of sour wine was sitting there; and they filled a sponge with sour wine, put it on hyssop, and put it to His mouth. 30 So when Jesus had received the sour wine, He said, “It is finished!” And bowing His head, He gave up His spirit.
Exodus 12:23 For the Lord will pass through to strike the Egyptians; and when He sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the Lord will pass over the door and not allow the destroyer to come into your houses to strike you.

The Hebrews passed over from death to life. The comparison with Grace Age believers is that we also have passed from death to life through the blood of the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world.

Exodus 12:24 And you shall observe this thing as an ordinance for you and your sons forever.
Exodus 12:25 It will come to pass when you come to the land which the Lord will give you, just as He promised, that you shall keep this service.
  • The promised land is comparable to the believer’s life with God. Jesus is the Prince of Peace and the promised land is called Jerusalem, the land of peace (rest).
  • Just as it was in the Garden of Eden man will once again walk with God in the cool of the evening when Jesus rules on earth from Jerusalem during the future millennium, when “Emanuel” lives with men.
  • The promised land is a land of “rest” and as such, it is the sabbath.
  • The promised land is also “heaven” where God rules from above. It is the believer’s access to the throne of God in glorified and sinless bodies.
Exodus 12:26 And it shall be, when your children say to you, ‘What do you mean by this service?’
Exodus 12:27 that you shall say, ‘It is the Passover sacrifice of the Lord, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt when He struck the Egyptians and delivered our households.’ ” So the people bowed their heads and worshiped.

Personal Application: Love always demands a sacrifice. It is the essence of love. To share something of yourself is a sacrifice that produces the fruit of life. The archaic meaning of love in Hebrew is to produce fruit.

Love: āhaḇ H157

Exodus 12:28 Then the children of Israel went away and did so; just as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.

The Tenth Plague: Death of the Firstborn

Exodus 12:29 And it came to pass at midnight that the Lord struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of livestock.

At the Great White Throne Judgment in the future it will also be true that those who are not covered in the blood of the Lamb of God, from the greatest of men on their thrones to the least of men in their prisons will face the judgment of God at the darkest of times in their eternal lives.

Exodus 12:30 So Pharaoh rose in the night, he, all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where there was not one dead.

Not one single Egyptian house escaped God’s judgment. Likewise, when the Pharaoh and his armies chased the Hebrews through the Red Sea and the waters crashed over them not one single Egyptian lived and not one single Hebrew died.

The Exodus

Exodus 12:31 Then he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, “Rise, go out from among my people, both you and the children of Israel. And go, serve the Lord as you have said.
Exodus 12:32 Also take your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone;

Get Out!

and bless me also.”

And oh, by the way, before you go bless me also.

Exodus 12:33 And the Egyptians urged the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste. For they said, “We shall all be dead.”

The Egyptians “helped them pack” so to speak. The next plague might kill all of them.

Exodus 12:34 So the people took their dough before it was leavened, having their kneading bowls bound up in their clothes on their shoulders.

Extrapolated meanings of before it was leavened“:

  • To be unleavened is to be “sinless”, “without pride”.

Extrapolated meanings of shoulder“:

  • A symbol of authority
  • A place where blows are given as punishment
Exodus 12:35 Now the children of Israel had done according to the word of Moses, and they had asked from the Egyptians articles of silver, articles of gold, and clothing.

Not only did the Egyptians “help them pack” (urged them out) but gave them their silver, gold, and clothing, which is a lot to pack.

Exodus 12:36 And the Lord had given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they granted them what they requested. Thus they plundered the Egyptians.

The Hebrews asked humbly, without pride, without the puffing up of yeast, as scripture insinuates and notes how in the rush, they only had unleavened bread.

Nations are only “plundered” when they are conquered. This is a reversal of “plundering”. Egypt is also losing its gold, silver, and possessions. Some of the Egyptians leave with them.

Add this to Egypt’s losses in verse 12.

Exodus 12:37 Then the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides children.

Approximately the same number of women, plus a minimum average of 4 children per family? ~3.6 million people and their animals.

Exodus 12:38 A mixed multitude went up with them also, and flocks and herds—a great deal of livestock.

3.6 million people, their animals, AND another mixed multitude of non-Jewish origin with their animals also. ~ 4 million people with the animals is a multitude. Egypt is the place where God brought them to grow in strength of numbers.

To See The Numbers Click on 4 Million Dots click on the top of the pop up

Exodus 12:39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they had brought out of Egypt; for it was not leavened, because they were driven out of Egypt and could not wait, nor had they prepared provisions for themselves.
Exodus 12:40 Now the sojourn of the children of Israel who lived in (Canaan AND) Egypt was four hundred and thirty years.
Exodus 12:41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years—on that very same day—it came to pass that all the armies of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt.

What event transpired 430 years earlier on the very same day they came out of the land of Egypt on Passover while they were in Canaan?

On that day 430 years earlier Abraham offered to sacrifice Isaac (his only son of promise) in the same place the Jewish temple was yet to be built, in Jerusalem, on Mount Moriah. It was the First Passover Before There Was A Passover.

To verify click below:
Click on the blue link at the top of the pop up, then hit the DOWNLOAD button: A scroll will appear with the entire BC timeline of man.
then Scroll down to 1876 BC when Abraham offered to sacrifice Isaac
then Scroll up to 1446 BC the day the Hebrews left Egypt

Exodus 12:42 It is a night of solemn observance to the Lord for bringing them out of the land of Egypt. This is that night of the Lord, a solemn observance for all the children of Israel throughout their generations.

Passover Regulations

Exodus 12:43 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover: No foreigner shall eat it.
Exodus 12:44 But every man’s servant who is bought for money, when you have circumcised him, then he may eat it.

The servants were probably part of the mixed multitude who left with them.

Exodus 12:45 A sojourner and a hired servant shall not eat it.
 Exodus 12:46 In one house it shall be eaten; you shall not carry any of the flesh outside the house, nor shall you break one of its bones.

@ Prophecy Fulfillment Alert: John 19:31-36 (Not a bone of the Lamb to be broken) (Old Testament prophecy fulfilled by Jesus)

Exodus 12:47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.
Exodus 12:48 And when a stranger dwells with you and wants to keep the Passover to the Lord, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as a native of the land. For no uncircumcised person shall eat it.

The circumcision demonstrates the “cutting away of the worldly flesh”.

Believers today are circumcised in their heart.

  • Colossians 2:11 In Him you were also circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, by putting off the body of the sins of the flesh, by the circumcision of Christ,
Exodus 12:49 One law shall be for the native-born and for the stranger who dwells among you.”

There is only one law and it is the law of God. Only God knows right from wrong. Only God knows how to get sinful men to survive together in a healthy society. Only God has a plan for man’s future.

Exodus 12:50 Thus all the children of Israel did; as the Lord commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.
Exodus 12:51 And it came to pass, on that very same day, that the Lord brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt according to their armies (many people).
  • The first month is Nisan, from the 14th at twilight (literally the 15th after evening). The death of the firstborn occurred at midnight.

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